|LI, CHIEN-CHUN - Chung Shan Medical University|
|HSU, HUI-JIN - Chung Shan Medical University|
|WANG, YU-SHIANG - Chung Shan Medical University|
|Sheen, Shiowshuh - Allen|
|LIU, SHIH-CHUAN - Chung Shan Medical University|
Submitted to: The Royal Society of Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/2/2017
Publication Date: 6/5/2017
Citation: Li, C., Hsu, H., Wang, Y., Cassidy, J.M., Sheen, S., Liu, S. 2017. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products. The Royal Society of Chemistry. doi: 10.1039/C7FO00188F.
Interpretive Summary: The heat treatment impact on functionalities of orange by-product (e.g. peels) including antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated. Those properties were found significantly enhanced with the optimal heating conditions at 100 degree C for 26 hours. Antimicrobial potential on inactivation or inhibition of the survival of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes may be applicable to different foods to enhance microbial food safety. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities may improve the human health as a natural healing material. The processing effects on oranges by-product reduced the waste volume and increased the value of natural waste.
Technical Abstract: This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal heating conditions were also investigated. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidative activities of OBP extracts significantly were found increased by heat treatment. The lag time of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL was increased by 2.61, 8.61 and 8.76-fold with the addition of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml 100D extracts, respectively. The 100D extracts may significantly inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. 1 ug/mL of 100D extract may suppress the TNF-a-induced ICAM-1 protein expression. The optimal heating time for OBP was 26h at 100 degrees C, which resulted in the highest antioxidant activities.