Location: Sunflower and Plant Biology ResearchTitle: OMICS in weed science research: A perspective from genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches
|MAROLI, AMITH - Clemson University|
|GAINES, TODD - Colorado State University|
|DOGRAMACI, MUNEVVER - Former ARS Employee|
|THARAYIL, NISHANTH - Clemson University|
Submitted to: Weed Science
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/14/2018
Publication Date: 8/30/2018
Citation: Maroli, A.S., Gaines, T.A., Foley, M.E., Duke, S.O., Dogramaci, M., Anderson, J.V., Horvath, D.P., Chao, W.S., Tharayil, N. 2018. OMICS in weed science research: A perspective from genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches. Weed Science. https://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2018.33.
Interpretive Summary: The Weed Science Society of America held a symposium on OMICS technologies in weed science at its annual meeting in 2015. OMICS platforms such as genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics are being utilized to investigate mechanisms of herbicide resistance, the biology of weedy traits, and mode of action of bioactive phytochemicals. The goals are to understand the physiology of herbicide resistance, facilitate new weed management strategies, develop improved crop varieties, and discover herbicides with new modes of action.
Technical Abstract: The identity of all organisms is embedded in their genes and the progressive functionalization of the genetic code through transcription (synthesis of mRNAs), translation (synthesis of proteins), and metabolism (regulation of metabolites) that ultimately confers their physical and physiological phenotype. Weed scientists are actively pursuing several popular ‘omics’ platforms such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, phenomics, etc., to gain deeper insights about mechanisms of herbicide resistance and the biology of weedy traits. In particular, discovery of herbicides with new modes of action and combating the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds have become the major focus of many research groups that are using omics approaches. Using transcriptomics and metabolomics, weed scientists have investigated the effects of bud dormancy and vegetative growth in conferring herbicide resistance to perennial weeds such as Leafy spurge and mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth. Furthermore, various omics approaches have been used to understand the modes of action of several bioactive phytochemicals with promising herbicidal potential. However, due to the complex and overlapping nature of genetics, biochemistry, and metabolism, employing a single omics platform can rarely elucidate the intricacies of a biological system. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the different ‘omics’ technologies in order to consolidate multiple layers of information into a dataset that gives a better understanding of the genetic, biochemical and physiological functioning of biological systems. This multi-dimensional biological approach can be used to understand the physiology of herbicide resistance, to facilitate new weed management strategies, to develop improved crop varieties, and to discover herbicides with new modes of action.