Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/18/2017
Publication Date: 8/27/2017
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2017. Global spread and control of avian influenza. Proceedings of the 33rd World Veterinary Congress, Seoul, Korea, August 27-31, 2017. p.434-437.
Technical Abstract: H5 and H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge from the mutation of H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAI) after circulation in terrestrial poultry for a few weeks to years. There have been 42 distinct HPAI epizootics since 1959. The largest being the H5N1 A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD lineage) HPAI which emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 76 countries during the past 21 years. Since 2014, large outbreaks of Gs/GD lineage HPAI have occurred in poultry in USA, Taiwan, South Korea and African, Middle Eastern and European Union countries. Historically, the majority of the Gs/GD HPAI cases have been H5N1 but assortment of the virus has produced H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6 and H5N8 HPAI viruses of the 22.214.171.124 clade. Other sporadic outbreaks of H5 and H7 HPAI have been reported around the world, most recently in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and USA. In 2016, the H7N9 LPAI virus mutated to HPAI after circulating in poultry for 4 years. Control leading to eradication has been achieved by stamping-out programs and the most frequent strategy for dealing with HPAI, but some countries have utilized vaccination as an adjunct management tool. However, vaccination alone will not lead to eradication.