|OSORNO, JUAN - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY|
|VANDER WAL, AL - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY|
|KLOBERDANZ, MICHAEL - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY|
|PASCHE, JULIE - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY|
|SCHRODER, STEPHAN - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY|
|Miklas, Phillip - Phil|
Submitted to: Journal of Plant Registrations
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/19/2017
Publication Date: 1/18/2018
Citation: Osorno, J., Vander Wal, A., Kloberdanz, M., Pasche, J., Schroder, S., Miklas, P.N. 2018. A new slow darkening pinto bean with improved agronomic performance: Registration of ‘ND-Palomino’. Journal of Plant Registrations. 12:25-30. https://doi.org/10.3198/jpr2017.05.0026crc.
Interpretive Summary: Pinto bean is the most important market class grown and consumed in the United States. Total value of dry bean production in the U.S. during 2016 was estimated to be $879 million. Most of this production is located within the Red River Valley, which spans the border between the states of North Dakota and Minnesota. Pinto bean is prone to seed discoloration or darkening when stored for long periods of time or subjected to harvest delays caused by environmental factors such as rain. The seed coat of pinto bean will gradually change from a bright, light cream background, to a darker brown color after a few months of storage. Prolonged exposure of ready to harvest mature beans in the field to temperature extremes, high humidity, and sunlight, as often result from rain-induced harvest delays, accelerates the after-darkening of the seed. Consequently, otherwise fresh and recently harvested dry beans appear to be older due to the darker seed coat color. Pinto beans with darkening problems are less valuable because they are graded lower instituting a price penalty. Palomino pinto seed is bred for slow darkening that protects seed quality and reduces price penalties resulting in greater economic returns for growers.
Technical Abstract: ND-Palomino slow darkening pinto is a new cultivar jointly developed by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), and North Dakota State University (NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experimental Station (NDAES). ND-Palomino has shown competitive seed yields, upright plant architecture, and it has medium-early maturity comparable with other pinto cultivars commonly grown in the region. Averaged across 31 common environments, seed yield of ND-Palomino (2965 kg ha-1) was not significantly different than Stampede (2877 kg ha-1). Similarly, seed yield of ND-Palomino (2755 kg ha-1) was not significantly different than Lariat (2796 kg ha-1) across 33 common environments. However, across 34 common environments, seed yield of Windbreaker (3038 kg ha-1), and La Paz (3042 kg ha-1) was approximately 200 kg ha-1 higher than ND-Palomino (2819 kg ha-1). Still, this small difference for seed yield could be compensated for or even exceeded by not having discounted prices due to poor seed quality issues. Moreover, seed yield of ND-Palomino is significantly higher than the original sources of the sd gene, which indicates that genetic progress for improving yield of the slow dark pinto market class has been accomplished. Other traits of agronomic/economic importance including days to maturity, seed size, and canning quality are within acceptable commercial ranges and comparable to the commercial checks. Dry beans (especially pinto beans) are prone to seed discoloration or darkening when stored for long periods of time at undesirable conditions or when harvest is delayed due to environmental factors. Growers are penalized by getting a discounted price for their product because of this quality problem, while creating some marketing issues for the processors and packers. ND-Palomino offers a good combination of competitive seed yield and agronomic performance with the slow darkening trait.