Location: Healthy Processed Foods ResearchTitle: Rice fortification Author
|Khir, Ragab - University Of California|
|Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar - University Of California|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2018
Publication Date: 6/20/2018
Citation: Khir, R., Venkitasamy, C., Pan, Z. 2017. Rice fortification. In: The Science and Engineering of Rice. Pan, Z., Khir, R., editors. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: DEStech Publications, Inc. 391-416.
Interpretive Summary: Rice, one of the most important leading food crops in the world, provides 21% of energy and 15% of protein for per capita globally. It is cultivated in more than 100 countries with a total production of more than 740 million tons of rough rice and consumed by nearly half of the world’s population. However, the rough rice undergoes several processing steps including, milling, washing, and cooking before consumption. These processes lead to a significant loss in vitamins and minerals of rough rice. This chapter implies different aspects regarding the rice fortification to enhance its nutritional value. It includes detailed information about feasibility of rice fortification, effective factors for fortification process, fortification technologies, rice fortification at scale, barriers to rice fortification, economic considerations and future trends in fortification to sustain food systems.
Technical Abstract: Fortification of rice is considered as an effective strategy to remedy the micronutrient malnutrition. Micronutrient malnutrition or “hidden hunger” is one of the biggest public health problems affecting a large percentage of people worldwide. It causes serious diseases that dramatically restrict the physical and cognitive performance, retard normal growth, and increase the risks of morbidity and mortality. The main reason of micronutrient deficiencies is the insufficient intake and absorption of vitamins and minerals that are essential for healthy and productive life. Fortification process is aimed to add small amount of essential vitamins and minerals to the foods that people regularly eat. Moreover, fortification of rice allows risky populations to benefit without necessarily imposing changes to their regular eating habits. As the major food staple for massive number of people worldwide, rice with its intrinsic characteristics including, avaliabity, immense consumption, reach, and acceptability can be considered as an optimal product for fortification purposes. This chapter elaborately discusses different aspects of rice fortification process.