Location: Mosquito and Fly ResearchTitle: Effects of pyriproxifen on wild populations of the house fly, Musca domestica, and compatibility with its principal parasitoids Author
|Biale, Haim - University Of Haifa|
|Geden, Christopher - Chris|
|Chiel, Elad - University Of Haifa|
Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/6/2017
Publication Date: 8/18/2017
Citation: Biale, H., Geden, C.J., Chiel, E. 2017. Effects of pyriproxifen on wild populations of the house fly, Musca domestica, and compatibility with its principal parasitoids. Pest Management Science. doi:10.1002/ps.4638/epdf.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4638/epdf Interpretive Summary: House flies cost the US livestock industry an estimated $375 million per year and are important carriers of food-borne diseases. High levels of insecticide resistance in fly populations have made it exceedingly difficult to control these pests, resulting in a desperate need for new management tools. Researchers at USDA-ARS’ Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology and colleagues at the University of Haifa (Israel) studied the efficacy of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF). PPF interferes with the development of the flies and kills them before they can emerge as adults. Although it has been used against other pests for many years, PPF has never been registered for use against house flies in the US. Surveys of wild fly populations in the US and Israel found that PPF doses as low as 1-60 parts per million killed nearly 100% of the flies when it was applied to fly larval rearing medium. Somewhat higher doses were needed to get equivalent control in manure from dairy and beef cattle. PPF was found to be compatible with four species of parasitic wasps that are commonly used in fly control programs. The results demonstrate the usefulness of pyriproxyfen for fly control and its relative safety for non-target species.
Technical Abstract: Background. The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important pest of animal agriculture. Effective fly management requires integration of manure management, mass trapping, biological control, and selective insecticide use. Insecticidal control of house flies is difficult due to the rapidity of resistance development, yet the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of few insecticides that may still be effective. Here, we tested the susceptibility of four wild house fly populations in the USA and in Israel to PPF, as well as the effect of PPF on house fly parasitoids of the genera Muscidifurax and Spalangia. Results. Most house fly populations from both countries were completely eliminated at PPF concentrations of 0.001% (USA) and 0.006% (Israel). One population from each country exhibited initial levels of PPF-tolerance. Emergence rates of parasitoids developing in PPF-treated hosts at concentrations of 0.06% and up were significantly affected, whereas other fitness parameters were moderately- to non-affected. The results varied between parasitoid species and countries. Conclusions. PPF is still an effective tool for house fly control, but resistance management practices should be employed to avoid resistance. PPF is compatible with principal house fly parasitoids at low concentrations and is suitable for use in IPM.