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ARS Home » Southeast Area » New Orleans, Louisiana » Southern Regional Research Center » Cotton Fiber Bioscience Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #338719

Research Project: Molecular Approaches for More Efficient Breeding to Improve Cotton Fiber Quality Traits

Location: Cotton Fiber Bioscience Research

Title: Genomic insights into divergence and dual domestication of cultivated allotetraploid cottons

Author
item FANG, LEI - Nanjing Agricultural University
item GONG, HAO - Chinese Academy Of Sciences
item LUI, CHUNXIAO - Nanjing Agricultural University
item ZHOU, BAOLIANG - Nanjing Agricultural University
item HUANG, TAO - Chinese Academy Of Sciences
item WANG, YANKUM - Nanjing Agricultural University
item CHEN, SHUQI - Nanjing Agricultural University
item Fang, David
item DU, XIONGMING - Cotton Research Institute - China
item CHEN, HONG - Cotton Research Institute - China
item CHEN, JIEDAN - Nanjing Agricultural University
item WANG, SEN - Nanjing Agricultural University
item WANG, QIONG - Nanjing Agricultural University
item WAN, QUN - Nanjing Agricultural University

Submitted to: Genome Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/6/2017
Publication Date: 2/20/2017
Citation: Fang, L., Gong, H., Lui, C., Zhou, B., Huang, T., Wang, Y., Chen, S., Fang, D.D., Du, X., Chen, H., Chen, J., Wang, S., Wang, Q., Wan, Q. 2017. Genomic insights into divergence and dual domestication of cultivated allotetraploid cottons. Genome Biology. 18:33. doi:10.1186/s13059-017-1167-5.

Interpretive Summary: There are two widely cultivated cottons, one is high quality but low yield pima cotton (Gossypium brbadense) and the other is moderate quality but high yield upland cotton (G. hirsutum). Both were derived from a single hybridization event about 1-2 million years ago. After hybridization, these two species evolved separately, and were domesticated and are cultivated worldwide. In this research, we resequenced the genomes of 147 diverse wild relatives, landraces and modern cultivars, and found a strong divergence between pima and upland cotton. The two cultivated species generally underwent an independent evolution during their domestication and modern breeding. A few interspecific reciprocal introgression events between them were observed that might improve their adaptation, fiber yield and quality. Through population-scale comparisons of G. hirsutum races and cultivars, we identified 109 selective sweeps, occupying 3.4% of the cotton genome, in which the relatively highly expressed genes for fiber development and seed germination were enriched. This study provides an important resource for facilitating cotton genetic manipulation and evolutionary genomics research.

Technical Abstract: Cotton domestication was achieved by converting perennial trees into annual crops. After ploidization, two allotetraploid species, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, were domesticated and are cultivated worldwide. However, the overall genetic diversity between and within the cultivated species is poorly understood. Here we resequenced the genomes of 147 diverse wild relatives, landraces and modern cultivars, and found a strong divergence between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The two cultivated species generally underwent an independent evolution during their domestication and modern breeding. A few interspecific reciprocal introgression events between the two cultivated species were observed that might improve their adaptation, fiber yield and quality. Through population-scale comparisons of G. hirsutum races and cultivars, we identified 109 selective sweeps, occupying 3.4% of the cotton genome, in which the relatively highly expressed genes for fiber development and seed germination were enriched. This study provides an important resource for facilitating cotton genetic manipulation and evolutionary genomics research.