Skip to main content
ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BHNRC) » Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center » Food Surveys Research Group » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #338574

Research Project: What We Eat in America - Dietary Survey: Data Collection, Interpretation, Dissemination, and Methodology

Location: Food Surveys Research Group

Title: Sodium intake among persons aged >=2 years – United States, 2013-2014

Author
item Quader, Zerleen - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Zhao, Lixia - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Gillespie, Cathleen - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Cogswell, Mary - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Terry, Ana - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Moshfegh, Alanna
item Rhodes, Donna

Submitted to: Electronic Publication
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/23/2017
Publication Date: 3/31/2017
Citation: Quader, Z.S., Zhao, L., Gillespie, C., Cogswell, M.E., Terry, A.L., Moshfegh, A.J., Rhodes, D.G. 2017. Sodium intake among persons aged >=2 years – United States, 2013-2014. Electronic Publication. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 66(12):324–238. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6612a3.

Interpretive Summary: Reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. According to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, average daily U.S. sodium intake was high, 3,266 mg, and 44% of sodium consumed came from just 10 food types. The most recent data, from 2013-14, indicates average daily U.S. sodium intake is 3,409 mg, excluding salt added at the table, with 44% of intake from 10 and 70% from 25 food types; 61% from foods obtained at the store; and sodium density highest from foods obtained at restaurants. Food types contributing to intake differ by race/ethnic group, with newly available data indicating non-Hispanic Asians may consume a slightly more sodium-dense diet than non-Hispanic whites. Sodium intake remains high and comes from a variety of food types and places. Monitoring differences in types and sources of intake can help focus sodium reduction efforts.

Technical Abstract: High sodium consumption can increase hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure, and population-wide reductions of 40% over 10 years are projected to save at least 280,000 lives. Average U.S. sodium intake remains in excess of Healthy People 2020 objectives and monitoring sources of sodium in the U.S. population can help focus sodium reduction efforts. Data from 2013-2014 What We Eat in America, the dietary intake portion of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), were analyzed to determine the population proportion of sodium consumed from specific food categories and sources overall, and by demographic characteristics. This latest data includes updated food codes and separate estimates for intake among non-Hispanic Asians. In 2013-2014, 70% of the dietary sodium Americans consumed came from 25 food categories, with breads being the top contributor, accounting for 6% of sodium consumed. Most of the sodium consumed was from foods obtained at the store, however sodium density (mg/1,000 kcal) was highest for restaurant foods. A variety of commonly consumed foods contribute to U.S. sodium intake, emphasizing the importance of sodium reduction across the food supply.