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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Houma, Louisiana » Sugarcane Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #338532

Title: Phenotypic evaluation of a diversity panel selected from the world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and related grasses

item Todd, James
item SANDHU, HARDEY - Everglades Research Center
item Hale, Anna
item GLAZ, BARRY - Retired ARS Employee
item WANG, JIANPING - University Of Florida

Submitted to: Maydica
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/22/2017
Publication Date: 5/8/2017
Citation: Todd, J.R., Sandhu, H., Hale, A.L., Glaz, B., Wang, J. 2017. Phenotypic evaluation of a diversity panel selected from the world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and related grasses. Maydica. 62(2):M19.

Interpretive Summary: Sugarcane breeding requires diversity plant materials and to make progress. The World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (World Collection) located in Miami FL contains many diverse accessions but has not been investigated fully. To evaluate it better a representative sample was planted and measured for traits important to growers over two years. Measurements of height and stalk number of plants early in their life cycle were more predictive of fresh weight and Brix than the same measurements at harvest. This could be used by breeders to make early predictions and selections. Most of the species had traits as expected compared with previous research. There were several accessions which had traits and yield which exceeded that of the checks. There were 90 accessions significantly higher for stalk number and 24 accessions significantly greater for dry mass and 6 accessions significantly greater for fresh mass than the checks. There were also 110 accessions not significantly different than the check including 10 Saccharum spontaneum which is significant because the genera adds disease and cold resistance to cultivars.

Technical Abstract: Long-term improvement of sugarcane and energy cane (complex hybrids of Saccharum spp.) cultivars can be enhanced by breeding with the type of diverse germplasm available at the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) maintained in Miami, Florida. To evaluate germplasm in the WCSRG for breeding purposes, a diversity panel was selected with approximately 300 accessions and planted at Canal Point, FL in three replications. These accessions were measured for stalk height and stalk number multiple times throughout the plant-crop growing season and for Brix and fresh biomass during the 2013 harvest. First-ratoon stalk height, stalk number, stalk diameter, internode length, Brix, and fresh and dry biomass were evaluated in 2014. The highest correlations were found between early season measurements and harvest traits. Hybrids had higher fresh weight and Brix while Saccharum spontaneum had higher stalk number and dry mass. According to the principal component analysis, the diversity panel was divided into two groups. One group had accessions with high stalk number and high dry biomass like S. spontaneum and the other had accessions with higher Brix and fresh biomass such as S. officinarum. In first ratoon, there were 110 accessions not significantly different in Brix from the sugarcane commercial standards, including 10 S. spontaneum accessions, and 17 and 6 accessions that were higher than commercial standards in dry and fresh mass, respectively. This study shows the variability in traits of interest and the breeding potential of accessions within the WCSRG for sugar-and energy-cane cultivar development.