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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Prevent and Control Disease Outbreaks Caused by Emerging Strains of Avian Influenza Viruses

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Avian influenza virus

Author
item Spackman, Erica

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/21/2017
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are raised for consumption, or their eggs or progeny will be food for humans) are generally not natural hosts. Some species of domestic ducks are a special case because they are closely enough related to the dabbling ducks that they can be easily infected with AIV and can carry the virus asymptomatically. As a food borne illness, human infection and disease caused by AIV is not typical because ingestion of food is not the usual route of exposure. Human exposure to the AIV is associated almost exclusively with: slaughter, food preparation, and handling of uncooked poultry products. The most important step in preventing the introduction of AIV into the food supply is by preventing infections in poultry. The risk of AIV infection from food can be mitigated by implementing standard safe food handling practices and by consuming only cooked products.

Technical Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are raised for consumption, or their eggs or progeny will be food for humans) are generally not natural hosts. Some species of domestic ducks are a special case because they are closely enough related to the dabbling ducks that they can be easily infected with AIV and can carry the virus asymptomatically. As a food borne illness, human infection and disease caused by AIV is not typical because ingestion of food is not the usual route of exposure. Human exposure to the AIV is associated almost exclusively with: slaughter, food preparation, and handling of uncooked poultry products. The most important step in preventing the introduction of AIV into the food supply is by preventing infections in poultry. The risk of AIV infection from food can be mitigated by implementing standard safe food handling practices and by consuming only cooked products.

Last Modified: 10/18/2017
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