|BARKAI-GOLAN, RIVKA - Volcani Center (ARO)|
Submitted to: Academic Press
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2017
Publication Date: 7/1/2017
Citation: Follett, P.A., Barkai-Golan, R. 2017. Irradiation for quality improvement, microbial safety and phytosanitation of fresh produce. San Diego, CA, Academic Press. 302 p.
Interpretive Summary: Food irradiation is a technology that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. The application of ionizing radiation using gamma rays, x-rays, or electron beam can serve many purposes such as eliminating organisms that cause food borne illness, destroying organisms that cause spoilage and decomposition, controlling quarantine insects to prevent their spread, inhibiting sprouting and delaying ripening, and sterilizing food for patients with impaired immune systems. Food irradiation is safe and the process has been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and many other organizations around the world. Fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet and variety is as important as quantity. Several book chapters and reviews have been written on the benefits of radiation treatment of fruits and vegetables. In this book we pull together research, technological advances and current trends from many disciplines to provide a single comprehensive source of information on the many uses of irradiation to improve the safety and supply of fruits and vegetables.
Technical Abstract: In this book we pull together research, technological advances and current trends from many disciplines to provide a single comprehensive source of information on the many uses of irradiation to improve the safety and supply of fruits and vegetables. Part 1 of the book focuses on the potential of ionizing radiation as a physical treatment for extending post-harvest life of fruits and vegetables including the control of postharvest decay, the delay or retardation of the ripening and senescence processes and the elimination of human pathogenic bacteria commonly contaminating fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and are involved in outbreaks following consumption. The first chapter focuses on radiation sources, dose terminology and clearances for irradiations. Chapter 2 focuses on factors influencing postharvest pathogen sensitivity to irradiation and the wish to lower the effective radiation doses via application of combined treatments with other accepted postharvest treatments. Chapter 3 focuses on postirradiation changes in fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables including microbiological changes, nutritional changes (including vitamin C content) and chemical changes in the irradiated fruits and vegetables. Chapter 4 deals with irradiation effects on mycotoxin accumulation in fresh fruits and vegetables. Chapter 5 is dedicated to irradiation effects on sprout inhibition of tubers, bulbs and roots along with changes caused at sprout inhibition doses. Chapters 6 and 7 are dedicated to irradiation effects on individual fruits and vegetables. The fruits and vegetables discussed in these chapters are accompanied by presentation of the beneficial effects of irradiation versus the adverse or undesirable effects. Chapter 8 focuses on irradiation effects on the quality and safety of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables contaminated by human pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 9 focuses on consumer attitude towards irradiated food and the need for detecting irradiation in irradiated fresh produce or for insuring its application. This chapter sums up the benefits of irradiation of fruits and vegetables and the subjects associated with future irradiation research on the fresh produce. Part 2 of the book presents up-to-date information on the use of irradiation to control quarantine pests for market access of fresh commodities. Chapter 10 presents the fundamentals of phytosanitary irradiation, the history of insect control using irradiation, and research methods and regulatory aspects. Chapter 11 discusses the development of generic radiation treatments to control insects, the role this has played in the growth of phytosanitary uses of irradiation worldwide, and fertile areas for future research. Chapter 12 reviews options for combining irradiation with other postharvest quarantine treatments. Finally, Chapter 13 discusses current issues and next steps in the use of phytosanitary irradiation that will lead to wider commercial adoption.