Submitted to: Mid-Continent Warm Water Fish Culture Workshop
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/28/2017
Publication Date: 2/6/2017
Citation: Straus, D.L., Ledbetter, C.K. 2017. Influence of alkalinity and hardness on copper sulfate toxicity to various fish [abstract]. Mid-Continent Warm Water Fish Culture Workshop, Olathe, Kansas, February 6-8, 2017. p. 27.
Technical Abstract: Copper sulfate treatments are currently used to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs. This compound has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common treatment now. In our lab’s efforts to gain an FDA-approval for copper sulfate, we are well-aware that there is a great deal of information on the toxicity of copper, especially in low-alkalinity waters; however, much of this information is fragmented, and a comprehensive guide of copper toxicity and safe concentrations in various water chemistries is not available. In addition, historical data does not always include alkalinity, which is crucial when determining toxicity.