|HARRIS, TYLER - Texas Tech University|
|LIANG, YU - Texas Tech University|
|SHARON, KATE - Texas Tech University|
|SELLERS, MATTHEW - Texas Tech University|
|YOON, IIKYU - Diamond V Mills, Inc|
|SCOTT, MARK - Diamond V Mills, Inc|
|Carroll, Jeffery - Jeff Carroll|
|BALLOU, MICHAEL - Texas Tech University|
Submitted to: Journal of Dairy Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/2/2017
Publication Date: 9/1/2017
Citation: Harris, T.L., Liang, Y., Sharon, K.P., Sellers, M.D., Yoon, I., Scott, M.F., Carroll, J.A., Ballou, M.A. 2017. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and Original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype. Journal of Dairy Science. 100:7154-7164. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-12509.
Interpretive Summary: This study represents a collaborative effort among scientists from federal, university and industry groups to investigate the effects of providing yeast fermentation products to Holstein calves either in the milk replacer or starter ration as a means to improve the health and performance of calves following a bacterial immune challenge. Results from this study indicated that supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in both the milk replacer and calf starter of pre-weaned Holstein calves improved calf starter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency. Further, the acute phase response to an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium was attenuated when calves were supplemented in both the milk replacer and calf starter with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products. Therefore, calf growth performance and health can be improved by supplementing their diets prior to being exposed to a pathogenic bacteria. These data will be of interest to researchers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and dairy calf ranch managers who are looking for a viable means to improve the health and well-being of young dairy calves.
Technical Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare™ (SC) in milk replacer and Original XPC™(XPC) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein bull calves (2 ± 1 d of age) per period. In each period, calves were blocked by location in the barn and randomly assigned to treatments that included: CONTROL: base milk replacer and calf starter with no added Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SC: milk replacer with 1 g SC/calf/d and base calf starter, and SC+XPC: milk replacer with 1 g SC/calf/d and calf starter with 0.5% XPC on a dry matter (DM) basis. Calves were fed 350 g of milk replacer solids at 14% DM twice daily at 0700 and 1700. Calf starter and water were offered ad libitum and intakes were recorded daily. Calves were challenged with 108 CFU of sulfamethazine-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium orally on d 14 of the study. Fecal Salmonella shedding was determined on d 14 to 21 (daily), 24, 28, and 35 using selective media. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24, 28, and 35 and analyzed for hematology. Contrasts were analyzed to determine SC and XPC effects. All data are reported as CONTROL, SC, and SC+XPC, respectively. The LSMeans with various superscripts differ (P = 0.05). Calf starter intake (0.20a, 0.25ab, 0.29b ± 0.024 kg) was improved in both SC and SC+XPC (SC contrast P = 0.011; XPC contrast P = 0.029). Average daily gain (0.48a, 0.48a, 0.58b ± 0.028 kg) was greater among SC+XPC calves vs. the other treatments (XPC contrast, P = 0.012). Post-challenge, the SC+XPC calves had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.81a, 0.83a, 0.69b ± 0.051) vs. CONROL and SC calves (XPC contrast, P = 0.005). The SC+XPC calves also had lower hematocrits (35.1a, 35.3a, 33.4b ± 0.54%) and hemoglobin concentrations (10.8a, 10.6a, 10.1b ± 0.16 mg/dL) after the challenge. Fecal Salmonella shedding tended to be reduced by both SC and SC+XPC (3.21, 2.84, 2.42 ± 0.279 d shedding; SC and XPC contrasts P = 0.071). Supplementing preweaned Holstein calves with both SC in milk replacer and XPC in calf starter improved performance and enteric health after a mild challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium.