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ARS Home » Plains Area » Stillwater, Oklahoma » Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #337264

Research Project: Management of Aphids Attacking Cereals

Location: Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research

Title: Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

item Puterka, Gary
item NICHOLSON, SCOTT - Oklahoma State University
item Cooper, Rodney - William

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/25/2017
Publication Date: 7/1/2017
Citation: Puterka, G.J., Nicholson, S.J., Cooper, W.R. 2017. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets. Journal of Economic Entomology. 110(4):1518-1524.

Interpretive Summary: Aphids are serious pests of ornamental and crop plants. A major part of an aphid's diet is a sugar called sucrose. This study addresses the survival and feeding rates of four major aphid pests, the greenbug, Russian wheat aphid, green peach aphid, and soybean aphid on a range of sucrose concentrations. Feeding bioassays were conducted using specially designed feeding chambers to conduct these studies with the goal of establishing optimal sucrose concentrations for developing artificial diets. Sucrose concentrations ranging from 10 to 35% were tested to determine survival and feeding rates for each aphid species over an 11 day period. Soybean aphid survival was 83% on 30% sucrose and in the low 70's on sucrose concentrations ranging from 20-25%. Russian wheat aphid survival was in the mid-80% on sucrose concentrations of 15-25%. In contrast, the greenbug and green peach aphid survival was in the mid 80-90% on a wide range of sucrose concentrations of 15-30%. Results indicate that over an 11 day feeding period, survival of these aphid species differ in their ability to survive sucrose. This study will be used to design better artificial diets suited to each aphid species in order to facilitate studies on aphid biology and antibiotic materials for their control.

Technical Abstract: Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphis noxia, Myzus persicae or Schizaphis graminum at 25 degrees C, 14-10 (L:D). Survival on each diet was recorded 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11d. Diet volumes (ul) consumed and amounts of honeydew produced were then determined. Aphid survival differed significantly by concentration, time (d), and aphid species. A. glycines survival was highest (83.8%) on 30% sucrose although percent survival in the 70's occurred on concentrations ranging from 15–25%. D. noxia survival was highest on the 15 and 20% sucrose concentrations. Survival for M. persicae was optimal on 20% sucrose concentrations (92%) but did not differ that much (3%) on concentrations of 10-25%. S. graminum survival (93.0–93.6%) was high on sucrose concentrations ranging from 20–30% sucrose. M. persicae and S. graminum, which feed on a wide-range of host plants, were overall more adapted to feeding on a wider range of sucrose concentrations than the more host restricted aphid species, A. glycines. Diet consumption by A. glycines did not vary on the sucrose concentrations, but D. noxia, M. persicae exhibited increased consumption on diets that provided optimal survival. Results will aid in the design of short term studies using sucrose-only diets to evaluate effects of bioactive materials on aphid survival for up to 11 days.