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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #337133

Research Project: Food Factors to Prevent Obesity and Related Diseases

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Title: Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes

Author
item Raatz, Susan
item Jahns, Lisa
item Johnson, Luann - University Of North Dakota
item Scheett, Angela - University Of North Dakota
item Carriquiry, Alicia - Iowa State University
item Lemieux, Andrine - University Of Minnesota
item Nakajima, Motohiro - University Of Minnesota
item Al'absi, Mustafa - University Of Minnesota

Submitted to: Nutrition Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/25/2017
Publication Date: 8/23/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5832841
Citation: Raatz, S.K., Jahns, L.A., Johnson, L.K., Scheett, A., Carriquiry, A., Lemieux, A., Nakajima, M., Al'Absi, M. 2017. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes. Nutrition Research. 45:30-37.

Interpretive Summary: Smoking is a risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be partly due to the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers to that of nonsmokers in participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. Men and women completed one 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were compared to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels. Smokers reported lower intakes of many nutrients and reduced compliance with the DRI for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared to nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported inadequate nutrient intakes. However, reported intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients which may contribute to the risk of chronic disease in this group. The data suggest that public health efforts to reduce smoking should also include messages to improve dietary habits for improved nutrient intake.

Technical Abstract: Smoking is a risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be partly due to the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers to that of nonsmokers in participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed one 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels. The mean BMI was 28.3±0.5 kg/m2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0 kg/m2 for nonsmokers. Compared to nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRI for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared to nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs. no-smokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRI suggesting inadequate nutrient intake. However, reported intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients. The reduced nutrient intake of smokers may contribute to the risk of chronic disease in this group. The data suggest that public health efforts to reduce smoking should also include messages to improve dietary habits for improved nutrient intake.