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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fayetteville, Arkansas » Poultry Production and Product Safety Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #336837

Research Project: Antibiotic Alternatives for Controlling Foodborne Pathogens and Disease in Poultry

Location: Poultry Production and Product Safety Research

Title: Trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and eugenol reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization factors and expression of virulence genes in vitro

Author
item Upadhyay, Abhinav - University Of Arkansas
item Arsi, Komala - University Of Arkansas
item Wagle, Basanta - University Of Arkansas
item Upadhyaya, Indu - University Of Arkansas
item Shrestha, Sandip - University Of Arkansas
item Donoghue, Ann - Annie
item Donoghue, Dan - University Of Arkansas

Submitted to: Frontiers in Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/6/2017
Publication Date: 4/25/2017
Citation: Upadhyay, A., Arsi, K., Wagle, B.R., Upadhyaya, I., Shrestha, S., Donoghue, A.M., Donoghue, D.J. 2017. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and eugenol reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization factors and expression of virulence genes in vitro. Frontiers in Microbiology. 8:713.

Interpretive Summary: The foodborne bacteria Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of diarrhea in humans. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal cells followed by toxin production and diarrhea. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal cells and production of toxin could potentially reduce infection in humans. This study investigated the efficacy of low concentrations of three phytochemicals namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC; 0.005, 0.01%), carvacrol (CR; 0.001, 0.002%) and eugenol (EG; 0.005, 0.01%) in reducing the attachment, invasion, and translocation of C. jejuni on human intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, the effect of these phytochemicals on Campylobacter motility and toxin production was studied. All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated three times on three strains (wild type S-8, NCTC 11168, 81-176) of C. jejuni. The majority of phytochemical treatments reduced C. jejuni adhesion, invasion, and translocation of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the phytochemicals reduced pathogen motility and production of toxin in S-8 and NCTC 11168. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that phytochemicals reduced the transcription of select C. jejuni genes critical for infection in humans. Results suggest that TC, CR, and EG could potentially be used to control Campylobacter infection in humans.

Technical Abstract: Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans. This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs, concentration not inhibiting bacterial growth) of three GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status phytochemicals namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC; 0.005, 0.01%), carvacrol (CR; 0.001, 0.002%) and eugenol (EG; 0.005, 0.01%) in reducing the attachment, invasion, and translocation of C. jejuni on human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Additionally, the effect of these phytochemicals on Campylobacter motility and CDT production was studied using standard bioassays and gene expression analysis. All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated three times on three strains (wild type S-8, NCTC 11168, 81-176) of C. jejuni. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with GraphPad ver. 6. Differences between the means were considered significantly different at P<0.05. The majority of phytochemical treatments reduced C. jejuni adhesion, invasion, and translocation of Caco-2 cells (P<0.05). In addition, the phytochemicals reduced pathogen motility and production of cytolethal distending toxin in S-8 and NCTC 11168 (P<0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that phytochemicals reduced the transcription of select C. jejuni genes critical for infection in humans (P<0.05). Results suggest that TC, CR, and EG could potentially be used to control Campylobacter infection in humans.