Location: Foreign Animal Disease ResearchTitle: Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G
|O'DONNELL, VIVIAN - University Of Connecticut|
|RISATTI, GUILLERMO - University Of Connecticut|
|AZZINARO, PAUL - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|STENFELDT, CAROLINA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|VELAZQUEZ-SALINAS, LAURO - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
Submitted to: PLOS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/27/2017
Publication Date: 5/24/2017
Citation: Holinka-Patterson, L.G., O'Donnell, V., Risatti, G., Azzinaro, P.A., Arzt, J., Stenfeldt, C., Velazquez-Salinas, L., Gladue, D.P., Borca, M.V. 2017. Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177433.
Interpretive Summary: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a devastating disease in pigs. We developed a vaccine to control this disease we call FlagT4Gv. During disease control, it is critical to have vaccines that induce a rapid protective response against infection. In this paper we showed that our vaccine FalgT4G induces protection against disease as early as 3 days after vaccination. The mechanisms of protection involves a protein called interferon-alpha. Interferon-alpha is a protein produced in the body that regulates the immune system. Early vaccination helps quickly stop the spread of the disease, and is very important to areas where the vaccine would be used.
Technical Abstract: Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines has been a very effective method to control disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscularly (IM) administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv) as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasally (IN) challenged with BICv 3 days earlier, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated a specific increase of IFN-alpha three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.