|KURT, AYNUR - Karadeniz Technical University|
|TORUN, HULYA - Duzce University|
|NESRIN, COLAK - Karadeniz Technical University|
|HAYIRLIOGLU-AYAZ, SEMA - Karadeniz Technical University|
|AYAZ, FAIK AHMET - Karadeniz Technical University|
Submitted to: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/3/2016
Publication Date: 11/26/2016
Citation: Kurt, A., Torun, H., Nesrin, C., Seiler, G., Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S., Ayaz, F.A. 2017. Nutrient profiles of the hybrid grape cultivar 'Isabel' during berry maturation and ripening. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97:2468-2479.
Interpretive Summary: Fruits and vegetables are an important part of human nutrition playing an important role in nutrition and health. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk for some forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other chronic diseases. Grapes are one of the most economically important fruit crops in the world that are consumed whether industrially processed or in their natural form. Grape fruits contain nutritional elements, such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and phytochemicals that promote health and prevent diseases due to their high nutritional content. The hybrid grape cultivar ‘Isabel’ is widely grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey and constitutes an important part of the diet of its inhabitants. The objective of this study was to characterize compositional changes of soluble sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, and minerals in berries of Isabel grape through maturation and ripening. The nutritional content of Isabel grape fruit exhibited significant changes that were stage-dependent. Sugars and organic acids were the major nutrients in the skin, pulp, and fatty acids and minerals in the skin, pulp, and seed thtat were only slightly correlated through the maturation and ripening process in relation to berry moisture content, dry matter, pH, and titratable acidity. The current research on the chemical composition of Isabel grape should enable horticulturists and food technologists to select other wild genotypes or cultivars that are rich in these nutrients to improve nutritional quality. It will also help in recommending the fruit largely for human consumption, wine, or juice industry, due to its high sugar content and low acids. The optimum harvest date for Isabel grape is approximately the middle of September until the middle of October when they are producing the appropriate levels of sugars and organic acids for people who consume the berry in their diet, and for food technologists to consider the fruit for wine or the juice industry. This information also provides a basic food choice to local inhabitants since the Isabel grape is native to their flora.
Technical Abstract: The hybrid grape cultivar ‘Isabel’ (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera) is widely grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey and constitutes an important part of the diet of its inhabitants. Phenological and ampelographic studies of the grape have previously been performed, but there are no data concerning nutrient composition. Its nutrient content needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic and nutritional uses in the region. The concentrations (range, g kg-1 fresh weight) of major soluble sugars (fructose 2.08–79.70; glucose 3.71–66.74) increased and those of organic acids (tartaric acid 0.05–6.60; malic acid 2.38–9.92) decreased in the skin and pulp during ripening. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid in the skin (50.13), pulp (18.11) and seed (704), while the main minerals (dry weight) were potassium (2.70–19.70), followed by phosphorus (0.53–3.40) and calcium (0.42–5.90) in the parts. Berry maturation and ripening significantly influenced the concentrations of sugars and organic acids the most in the skin and pulp, but did not significantly affect the concentrations of fatty acids and minerals in the ‘Isabel’ grape. Our findings also suggest an optimal harvest time in terms of levels of the nutrients