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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Healthy Body Weight Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #335144

Research Project: Dietary Guidelines Adherence and Healthy Body Weight Maintenance

Location: Healthy Body Weight Research

Title: Time trends and patterns of reported egg consumption in the U.S. by sociodemographic characteristics

Author
item Jahns, Lisa
item Conrad, Zach
item Johnson, Luann - University Of North Dakota
item Roemmich, James
item Juan, Wenyen - Us Food & Drug Administration (FDA)

Submitted to: Journal of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2016
Publication Date: 4/1/2017
Citation: Jahns, L.A., Conrad, Z.S., Johnson, L., Roemmich, J.N., Juan, W. 2017. Time trends and patterns of reported egg consumption in the U.S. by sociodemographic characteristics [abstract]. Journal of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 31:648.1.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Objectives: To 1) describe time trends of the percentage of individuals in the U.S that consume eggs, 2) describe time trends of the daily amount of eggs consumed per day, and 3) examine differences in the amount of eggs consumed per day; overall and by gender, age, income, education, race-ethnicity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation, and food security status. Methods: Data on food consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were acquired from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2012. Weighted linear regression models were used to test for time trends in the percentage of individuals aged 20+ who reported consuming eggs, and the amount of eggs consumed, among each sociodemographic group. To examine differences in the amount of eggs consumed per day between sociodemographic groups, data from all survey years were pooled. The National Cancer Institute’s method was used to estimate usual intake, and standard errors were estimated using the balanced repeated replication method. Covariates included gender, age, race-ethnicity, and survey year. Differences between means were tested using the z-statistic, with Bonferroni’s adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results: The percentage of the population that reported consuming eggs did not differ across survey years, overall or by sociodemographic group. The amount of eggs consumed increased by 11% from 2001-2002 to 2011-2012 (P=0.01). Egg consumption increased among women (P=0.02) but not men (P=0.16). No significant time trends were observed among age groups. Non-Hispanc black individuals increased consumption by 15% (P=0.01), but there was no significant time trend among Mexican-Americans or non-Hispanic whites. Individuals classified as fully food secure reported a 20% increase (P=0.02) in egg consumption, but no time trends were observed among individuals of marginal or low/very low food security status. Individuals who were not income-eligible for participation in SNAP increased their egg consumption (P=0.04), but no time trends were observed for SNAP participants and SNAP-eligible non-participants. No differences in consumption across survey years were observed by education level or by income. Pooled data showed that individuals with less than a high school education consumed more eggs than individuals that attended college. Non-Hispanic whites consumed less eggs than Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic blacks. Conclusions: Eggs are nutritious and easy to prepare, so they may be a good food choice to improve nutritional status while keeping food costs low. Although per capita egg consumption increased over the study period it was limited to selected sociodemographic groups, and no trends were observed in the proportion of the population consuming eggs on a regular basis.