Location: Soil Management and Sugarbeet ResearchTitle: The Guanajuato Communication about the Potential for Implementation of Conservation Practices for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation to Achieve Food Security in Mexico During the 21st Century
|CUETO, J - Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Forestales Y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)|
|FIGUEROA, U - Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Forestales Y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)|
|PEÑA-CABRIALES, J - Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro De Desarrollo De Productos Bioticos (CEPROBI)|
Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/13/2016
Publication Date: 10/13/2016
Citation: Delgado, J.A., Cueto, J., Figueroa, U., Peña-Cabriales, J.J. 2016. The Guanajuato Communication about the Potential for Implementation of Conservation Practices for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation to Achieve Food Security in Mexico During the 21st Century. Meeting Proceedings. http://www.smcsmx.org/files/congresos/2016/Memorias_XLI_CNCS.pdf.
Interpretive Summary: Principles for adaptation to a changing climate: Following are selected key principles for developing soil and water conservation practices and policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These key principles are related to communication, conservation practices, and development of new science and technologies. We need to develop communication that connects science to farm managers and that also connects science to the public. We also need to teach the value of soil carbon and improve technology and conduct long-term studies to assess the effects of conservation practices on sustainability. Conservation practitioners need ongoing training and forums where these practices can be presented, and where there can be an exchange of information between scientists and practitioners. Additionally, there is a need to keep the soil covered to reduce erosion potential, and the need to improve soil functions with soil organic carbon. Field and off-site conservation practices are needed to reduce environmental impacts. There is a need to connect conservation practices applied at the field level (e.g. grassed waterways) with conservation practices applied off-site (e.g. riparian buffers). We need to implement multiple conservation practices at a field level and across the watershed to increase the potential for soil and water conservation at different scales, which will be needed for climate change adaptation. The promotion of energy-efficient practices; practices with increased water use efficiency; precision technology; and improved conservation practices and technology; will also contribute to increased effectiveness of conservation practices on and off the field, and increase the potential for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Increased nutrient cycling and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases will also be needed. Research will be key to achieve these goals. We will need to apply the principles listed above in order to develop sustainable systems that can be able to adapt to and mitigate climate change (Delgado et al., 2011, 2013; Walthall et al., 2012; SWCS 2011 position statement; Delgado et al. 2015). The MSSS could potentially develop a position statement on conservation practices and climate change mitigation and adaptation and also propose a joint position statement on this topic to the Latin American Soil Science Society at their 2016 annual meeting, similar to what was done by SWCS and WASWAC. Professional, private and government organizations are key to transfer technology to increase the use of conservation practices for climate change mitigation and adaptation. These soil and water conservation technology transfer efforts will contribute to improved climate change adaptation and food security during the 21st century.
Technical Abstract: The scientific literature reports that climate change will impact weather in North America, with projections for a drier and hotter southeastern United States and northwestern Mexico. The areas of Mexico that are projected to be impacted cover important grain areas of the country. Additionally, several of Mexico’s key aquifers are also being impacted, with withdrawal rates higher than recharge rates. The scientific literature also includes projections of changes in rain intensities and of increased storm precipitation events that will affect some areas of Mexico. These changes will create challenges for soil and water quality that could potentially impact agricultural productivity and soil quality. With ongoing population growth and the need to significantly increase agricultural production per unit of area during the 21st century, the effects of climate change on Mexico are projected to put additional stress on soil resources. Professional societies such as the Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) and the World Association of Soil and Water Conservation (WASWAC) have reported that implementation of proper soil and water conservation practices will be key for the future of humanity. SWCS and WASWAC have reported on the importance of soil and water resources for food security in the 21st century, and have recommended the implementation of the Delgado et al. (2011) principles for soil and water conservation to mitigate and adapt to a changing climate. Other organizations such as the International Soil Conservation Organization (ISCO) and the European Society of Soil Conservation (ESSC) have published about the importance of these principles for adapting to a changing climate. The Guanajuato Communication summarizes the Delgado et al. (2011) principles and together with the Delgado et al. (2011) principles, could be used as reference by the MSSS to develop a position statement about the immediate need for implementation of conservation practices for adaptation to a changing climate to improve the potential to achieve food security in the 21st century. This paper and invited keynote presentation will cover the Delgado et al. (2011) principles of soil and water conservation for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and the SWCS and WASWAC position statements, which support the conclusion that without implementation of good soil and water conservation practices and policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security in Mexico during the 21st century will be in jeopardy, since sustainable soil and water resources will be key to increase agricultural production to meet the increased resource demands of the 21st century.