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ARS Home » Plains Area » Kerrville, Texas » Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory » LAPRU » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #334764

Research Project: Cattle Fever Tick Control and Eradication

Location: Livestock Arthropod Pests Research

Title: In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits

item ABOELHADID, SHAWKY - Beni Suef University - Egypt
item MAHROUS, LILIAN - Beni Suef University - Egypt
item HASHEM, SHIMAA - Agricultural Research Center Of Egypt
item ABDEL-KAFY, EL-SAYED - Agricultural Research Center Of Egypt
item Miller, Robert

Submitted to: Parasitology Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/8/2016
Publication Date: 4/21/2016
Citation: Aboelhadid, S.M., Mahrous, L.N., Hashem, S.A., Abdel-Kafy, E.M., Miller, R. 2016. In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits. Parasitology Research. 115:3013-3020.

Interpretive Summary: Mange is considered one of the common and wide spread diseases in rabbit colonies, resulting in considerable economic losses. Mange reduces animal productivity and the quality of animal products and is often fatal if no treatment is given. A mite is the cause of mange in rabbits. It causes loss of appetite, emaciation, crusts, and scratching of the skin, shaking of the head, loss of fur, and potentially death. Although treatment of mange with pesticides like diazinon, deltamethrin, and ivermectin have achieved different grades of success, these insecticides can pollute the environment and make animals sick. We used the natural oil from lemon to kill mites on mite-infested rabbits and showed it to be highly toxic to the mites. The rabbits were not harmed by the treatment. This work demonstrated that a natural and safe product derived from lemons can be used to kill mites on rabbits without the need for synthetic pesticides.

Technical Abstract: The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro application was done in five replicates for each concentration in petri dishes in the laboratory. The treated mites were observed at 1, 12, and 24 h post application (PA) for lemon oil effect. In addition, oxidative stress profile was evaluated for the treated mite. Dependent on in vitro results, 20 % lemon oil was used in vivo trial. Twenty-four naturally infected rabbits were divided into three groups of eight: 20 % lemon oil, deltamethrin, and untreated control. The infected parts of rabbits were treated topically once a week for four successive weeks. In vitro application results showed that lemon oil 10 and 20 % diluted in water caused mortality to 100 % of mites after 24 h PA. The oxidative stress profile revealed that mites treated with 20 % lemon oil had significantly (P'<'0.05) higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde when compared with mites treated with deltamethrin or distilled water. In vivo application of 20 % lemon oil on naturally infected rabbits showed complete recovery from clinical signs, absence of mite in microscopic examination from the second week of treatment. In addition, productive performance was significantly better than infected untreated group. Also, the treated tissue showed stoppage of scale formation and hair growth faster than deltamethrin-treated rabbits. Consequently, lemon oil has remarkable miticidal activity in vitro and in vivo applications.