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ARS Home » Southeast Area » New Orleans, Louisiana » Southern Regional Research Center » Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #333791

Research Project: Reducing Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy

Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research

Title: Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenic reactivity of processed cashew and pistachio

Author
item Cuadrado, Carmen - Instituto Nacional De Investigacion Y Technologia Agraria Y Alimentaria
item Cheng, Hsiaopo
item Sanchiz, Africa - Instituto Nacional De Investigacion Y Technologia Agraria Y Alimentaria
item Ballesteros, Isabel - Instituto Nacional De Investigacion Y Technologia Agraria Y Alimentaria
item Easson, Michael
item Grimm, Casey
item Dieguez, Carmen - Hospital Universitario La Paz
item Linacero, Rosario - Complutense University Of Madrid (UCM)
item Burbano, Carmen - Instituto Nacional De Investigacion Y Technologia Agraria Y Alimentaria
item Maleki, Soheila

Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/30/2017
Publication Date: 8/31/2017
Citation: Cuadrado, C., Cheng, H., Sanchiz, A., Ballesteros, I., Easson, M.W., Grimm, C.C., Dieguez, C., Linacero, R., Burbano, C., Maleki, S.J. 2017. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenic reactivity of processed cashew and pistachio. Food Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchen.2017.08.120.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchen.2017.08.120

Interpretive Summary: Tree nuts (such as cashew, pistachio, almonds, etc) constitute one of the main cause of fatal anaphylactic reactions due to food allergy upon direct ingestion and as ingredients (hidden allergens), and cashew and pistachio allergies in the US and in Europe are considered a serious health problem. Several previous studies have shown that thermal processing may modify allergenic properties of food. For example, pressurization (heating to decontaminate) and using enzymes to chop up the proteins in foods can cause changes in protein structure and subsequently reduce the immunoreactivity of foods. The main objective of this study is to assess the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after heat treatment with or without high pressure (i.e. autoclaving and boiling) and enzymatic treatments while being subjected to ultrasound. The results indicate that certain high pressure conditions and enzymatic digestion of proteins under ultrasound treatment separately induced a measurable reduction of the allergic antibody, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding properties of both, cashew and pistachio proteins, being more effective with pistachio allergens. However, heat and high pressure treatment (boiling and autoclaving) combined with enzymatic digestion is necessary to markedly lower IgE binding to cashew allergens. The findings of this study identify highly effective processing conditions to reduce or even abolish the allergenic potency of cashew and pistachio, which may be relevant for consumers, clinicians, regulatory agencies and the food industry.

Technical Abstract: Tree nuts constitute one of the main cause of fatal anaphylactic reactions due to food allergy upon direct ingestion and as ingredients (hidden allergens), and cashew and pistachio allergies are considered a serious health problem. Several previous studies have shown that thermal processing may modify allergenic properties of food. For example, pressurization and enzymatic hydrolysis can cause changes in protein structure and subsequently reduce the immunoreactivity of foods. The main objective of this study is to assess the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after thermal treatment with or without pressure (autoclaving and boiling) and enzymatic treatments under sonication. The results indicate that certain autoclave conditions and enzymatic hydrolysis under sonication separately induced a measurable reduction of the IgE binding properties of both, cashew and pistachio proteins, being more effective with pistachio allergens. However, thermal treatment (boiling and autoclaving) combined with enzymatic digestion is necessary to markedly lower IgE binding to cashew allergens. The findings of this study identify highly effective processing conditions to reduce or even abolish the allergenic potency of cashew and pistachio, which may be relevant for consumers, clinicians, regulatory agencies and the food industry.