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Research Project: Dietary Guidelines Adherence and Healthy Body Weight Maintenance

Location: Healthy Body Weight Research

Title: Diet quality is lower and energy intake higher on weekends compared to weekdays in midlife women: A one-year cohort study

Author
item Jahns, Lisa
item Conrad, Zach
item Johnson, Luann - University Of North Dakota
item Scheett, Angela - University Of North Dakota
item Raatz, Susan

Submitted to: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/17/2017
Publication Date: 2/26/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5619813
Citation: Jahns, L.A., Conrad, Z.S., Johnson, L., Scheett, A., Raatz, S.K. 2017. Diet quality is lower and energy intake higher on weekends compared to weekdays in midlife women: A one-year cohort study. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2017.01.012.

Interpretive Summary: People often overeat on weekends, but what is unknown is what kinds of foods they eat and how much their diet quality changes. We asked 52 women aged 40-60 years to record everything they ate and drank three times each month for a year. We examined how their diets changed during each day of the week and on weekdays compared to weekends. We examined energy and nutrient intakes, food groups, and diet quality using the using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. We found that seventy-five percent of women consumed more energy and more calories from alcohol on weekend days than on weekdays. Calorie intake was highest on Saturday and lowest on Tuesday. On weekends, women consumed more alcoholic beverages, added sugar, fats and oils, eggs, meat, potatoes, and refined grains and less yogurt, whole and “other” fruits, orange vegetables, and whole grains than weekdays. Healthy eating scores were lower on weekends than weekdays. Higher weekend calorie intakes seen in this population, people don’t eat less during the week, could lead to increased weight gain or deter weight loss. Midlife women should be encouraged to maintain diet quality during weekends to improve overall dietary intake.

Technical Abstract: Background: Differences in energy and macronutrient intakes by weekday and weekend have been reported, but there are little data on differences in food group consumption and indices of diet quality. Objective: To describe dietary intake by day and on weekends compared to weekdays. Design: One-year cohort. Participants/setting: Women ages 40-60 years. Main outcome measures: Energy intake, percentage energy from macronutrients, food groups and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores from multiple 24-hour recalls. Statistical analyses performed: Effects of weekend on energy and percentage energy macronutrient intake, food group and HEI-2010 scores and component scores were tested using mixed linear models. Results: Participants (N=52) completed 1,080 recalls on weekdays and 786 on weekends. Seventy-five percent of women consumed more energy on weekends than on weekdays, with a mean intake higher on weekends (P<0.001). The percentage energy from carbohydrate (P< 0.001) and protein (P <0.001) were both lower on weekends, and percentage energy from alcohol higher (P < 001). There was no difference in the %en from fat (P = 0.070). Energy intake was highest on Saturday and lowest on Tuesday. On weekends, women consumed more alcoholic beverages, added sugar, fats and oils, eggs, meat, potatoes, and refined grains and less yogurt, whole and “other” fruits, orange vegetables, and whole grains than weekdays. HEI-2010 scores were lower on weekends than weekdays (P <0.001). Component scores were lower for Whole Fruits (P = 0.003), Greens and Beans (P = 0.017), Whole Grains (P = 0.002), and Dairy (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Higher weekend energy intakes seen in this population, if not compensated for during the week, could lead to increased weight gain or deter weight loss efforts. Results indicated that Saturdays should be included during dietary intake assessment. Midlife women should be encouraged to maintain diet quality during weekends to improve overall diet quality scores.