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Title: Moose (alces alces) mortality associated with caprine herpesvirus 2 (CPHV-2) in a zoological collection

item SEELEY, K.E. - Columbus Zoo And Aquarium
item JUNGE, R.E. - Columbus Zoo And Aquarium
item JENNINGS, R.N. - The Ohio State University
item Cunha, Cristina
item Li, Hong

Submitted to: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/22/2017
Publication Date: 9/1/2018
Citation: Seeley, K., Junge, R., Jennings, R., Cunha, C.W., Li, H. 2018. Moose (alces alces) mortality associated with caprine herpesvirus 2 (CPHV-2) in a zoological collection. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 49(3):774-778.

Interpretive Summary: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by a group of herpesviruses that infect both domestic and wild artiodactyls including cattle, bison, deer, moose, exotic ruminants, and pigs. The MCF viruses are maintained in nature in carrier species without causing disease. However, when transmitted to clinically susceptible animals, MCF can develop and it is frequently fatal. MCF is particular important in zoos and other animal congregations where virus carriers are in close contact with disease-susceptible animals. This report describes the diagnosis of caprine herpsvirus 2-associated MCF in a captive moose in a zoological setting. Goats housed nearby to the moose where identified as the potential source of the virus. This case illustrates the impact that subclinical carriers of MCF viruses can have on clinically susceptible animals and indicates measures implemented to reduce risk and prevent recurrence of MCF.

Technical Abstract: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) can infect both domestic and wild artiodactyls. In a zoological setting, where subclinical carriers and susceptible species are often housed in close proximity, the disease can prove fatal. This report describes a case of goat-associated MCF in a captive moose (Alces alces). The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, which included lymphocytic vasculitis in the brain and panuveitis, and by detection of caprine herpesvirus 2 DNA in tissues. Identical viral DNA sequences amplified from the clinically-affected moose and from goats housed in the zoo suggests that the goats were the source for the virus transmutation. This is the first report of a goat-associated MCF in moose in North America and surveillance measures and procedures put in place to prevent additional spread of the disease are presented.