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Title: Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

item DIAZ-SAN SEGUNDO, FAYNA - University Of Connecticut
item MEDINA, GISSELLE - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item STENFELDT, CAROLINA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Arzt, Jonathan
item De Los Santos, Teresa

Submitted to: Veterinary Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/16/2016
Publication Date: 12/19/2016
Citation: Diaz-San Segundo, F., Medina, G., Stenfeldt, C., Arzt, J., De Los Santos, T.B. 2016. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines. Veterinary Microbiology. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.018.

Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the most contagious disease in livestock animals, can spread like a wildfire in case of an outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in FMD-free countries (e.g. Korea, Japan) have recently raised awareness about the economic and social devastation associated with this disease. On the other hand, developing countries where the disease occurs regularly, are under strict restrictions on trade of animals or their products. This seriously hampers the economy and development of these nations. Therefore, improving current control methods or developing new strategies that ultimately will lead to global FMD eradication are of extreme importance in a world with rapid expansion of global markets. Over the years we have learned a wealth about FMD virus (FMDV) at the molecular level, including many functions of the viral-encoded proteins, the interaction of the virus with the host, the pathogenesis of the disease, and the effect of infection on the host immune response. This information and the tools of reverse genetics and immunology have allowed us to develop new approaches to rapidly detect and control this disease. In this manuscript we summarize the most relevant information about FMD vaccine strategies currently used in the field as well as all new research developed in recent years to improve vaccination strategies aimed to ultimately eradicate this contagious disease.

Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. In areas of the world where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of FMD seriously impact food security and development. In highly industrialized developed nations, FMD endemics cause economic and social devastation mainly due to severe trade restrictions imposed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE). High morbidity, complex host-range and broad genetic diversity make FMD prevention and control exceptionally challenging. In this article we review different approaches developed over the years to successfully control and ultimately eradicate this feared disease.