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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Columbia, Missouri » Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #332657

Title: Soybean yield response: planting date and maturity groups in Missouri

Author
item SALMERON, MONTSE - University Of Arkansas
item PURCELL, LARRY - University Of Arkansas
item FRITSCHI, FELIX - University Of Missouri
item SHANNON, GROVER - University Of Missouri
item Vories, Earl - Earl
item WIEBOLD, WILLIAM - University Of Missouri

Submitted to: Agriculture Handbook
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/27/2016
Publication Date: 9/20/2016
Citation: Salmeron, M.C., Purcell, L.C., Fritschi, F.B., Shannon, G., Vories, E.D., Wiebold, W.J. 2016. Soybean yield response: planting date and maturity groups in Missouri. Agriculture Handbook. Available: http://reader.mediawiremobile.com/USB/issues/108705/viewer.

Interpretive Summary: Soybean is a major crop throughout the US and genetic and environmental factors affect yield and other important properties. University and ARS scientists collaborated in a three-year study across ten Mid-South locations, including Portageville and Columbia, Missouri, beginning in 2012 to examine the factors affecting production of irrigated soybean. The results obtained from the two Missouri locations indicated that maximum yields are achieved by maturity group 3 cultivars; however, yields of maturity group 4 cultivars were not statistically different in most cases. The optimum planting window to attain maximum yields at Columbia was constant across cultivars within a maturity group, starting in April and ending in late May or early June. At Portageville, optimum planting windows were earlier in general than in Columbia. This research will benefit Missouri producers by helping them make the best choices regarding cultivar selection for a given environment and everyone will benefit from the additional knowledge regarding optimal production of an important food crop.

Technical Abstract: Planting date is one of the main factors affecting soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yield. The environmental conditions in the U.S. Mid-South, combined with irrigated management, can allow for a wide planting window from late March to early July, and using cultivars from maturity group (MG) 3 to 6. However, selection of optimum planting dates for a location and/or MG cultivar can be a crucial component for achieving yields close to the potential for a given environment. Experiments were conducted from 2012 to 2014 at a total of 10 locations including Portageville and Columbia, Missouri, with four planting dates and four soybean cultivars in each of the MGs, from 3 to 6. In addition to the combined findings from all locations, the data were analyzed separately for location-specific recommendations. The results obtained from the two Missouri locations indicated that maximum yields were achieved by MG 3 cultivars. However, yields of MG 4 cultivars followed close behind and were not statistically different in most cases. The optimum planting window to attain maximum yields at Columbia was constant across cultivars within a MG, starting in April and ending in early June (MG 3 and 4) and late May (MG 5 and 6). At Portageville, optimum planting windows were earlier in general than in Columbia. When planting date was delayed after May 17, yields declined at variable rates ranging from 0.56 to 0.9 percent per day. When relative yields are similar among MG cultivars, short-season cultivars could offer an incentive by reducing irrigation costs, avoiding late-season stress (insect and disease pressure) and benefiting from earlier harvest dates and higher market prices.