|BECK, PAUL - University Of Arkansas|
|GADBERRY, MICHAEL SHANE - University Of Arkansas|
|STEWART, CYRL BRANDON - University Of Arkansas|
|GRAY, HANNAH - University Of Arkansas|
|WISTUBA, TROY - Novus International, Inc|
|CRAVEY, MATTHEW - Provimi North America, Inc|
Submitted to: Professional Animal Scientist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/12/2016
Publication Date: 3/27/2017
Citation: Beck, P.A., Gadberry, M., Stewart, C., Gray, H.C., Wistuba, T.J., Cravey, M.D., Gunter, S.A. 2017. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers. Professional Animal Scientist. 33:176-185.
Interpretive Summary: In an effort to alleviate greenhouse gas emission by ruminant livestock, scientist are seeking methods to mitigate the methane emission by grazing cattle because these cattle are an important high-quality food and revenue source for rural communities. Essential oils extracted from cinnamon and garlic has been shown to reduce the methane emission by ruminal bacteria and produce biochemical end products that should result in improved efficiency of performance. However, the previous research discussed was from laboratory analyses and has not been tested in production situations. A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing cattle diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts on promoting growth on cool-season annual grasses in Arkansas or Oklahoma, or native rangeland in northwest Oklahoma. In each experiment and location, garlic and cinnamon oil products were supplemented to the cattle at the manufactures’ recommended rates. However, in the production situations that these cattle experienced in the experiments that used essential oils products, the cattle did not show a change in the average daily gain or their efficiency of resource utilization. Hence, it is doubtful the use of essential oil products had any impact on methane emission by the cattle.
Technical Abstract: A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangeland at SPRRS. At the SWREC, steers (number = 272, body weight = 209 ± 7.8 kg) grazing cool-season annual pastures were hand-fed supplements containing mineral premixes which 1) were non-medicated (CNTRL), 2) provided 250 mg/day of a mixture of garlic and cinnamon essential oil extracts (GCOE, NextEnhance, Novus International, St. Louis, MO), 3) provided 200 mg/day of monensin (MON, Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN) or 4) provided both 250 mg/day of GCOE and 200 mg/day of MON (RGC). In the SWREC experiment, there were no differences (P = 0.13) in either body weight or average daily gain due to GCOE, RUM, or their interactions. At the SPRRS, steers grazing wheat pasture (number = 72, body weight = 250 ± 3.9 kg) were offered ad libitum access to mineral supplements which were non-medicated or contained 1.6 g of GCOE/kg mineral, and steers and heifers (number = 132, body weight = 249 ± 4.7 kg) grazing summer native rangeland were offered ad libitum access to mineral supplements that 1) were non-medicated; 2) provided 2.4 g of GCOE/kg; 3) provided 1.8 g of MON/kg, or 4) provided 1.8 of g MON and 2.4 of g GCOE/kg. At the SPRRS, there were no differences (P = 0.12) in either body weight or average daily gain due to GCOE, RUM, or their interactions. In these experiments, providing GCOE or RUM either by hand feeding or in self-fed mineral supplements had no effect (P = 0.12) on body weight or average daily gain of growing calves grazing cool-season annual grass pasture or summer native rangeland.