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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Laboratory for Agriculture and The Environment » Agroecosystems Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #332360

Research Project: Animal and Manure Management for Sustainable Production and Reduced Environmental Impact

Location: Agroecosystems Management Research

Title: Effect of dietary fiber and diet particle size on nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal secretory function in growing pigs

Author
item SAQUI-SALCES, MILENA - University Of Minnesota
item LUO, ZHAOHUI - University Of Minnesota
item URRIOLA, PEDRO - University Of Minnesota
item SHURSON, GERALD - University Of Minnesota
item Kerr, Brian

Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/28/2017
Publication Date: 6/8/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5927846
Citation: Saqui-Salces, M., Luo, Z., Urriola, P.E., Shurson, G.C., Kerr, B.J. 2017. Effect of dietary fiber and diet particle size on nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal secretory function in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 95(6):2640-2648. doi:10.2527/jas2016.1249.

Interpretive Summary: Motility, digestion, absorption, and secretion of the digestive tract are regulated by the central nervous system and nutrients located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Both nutrients and diet composition (DC) regulate signaling and expression of chemosensory receptors, resulting in changes of GI secretions involved in appetite, satiation, glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, nutrient absorption, liver function, and gut microbiota composition. These combined effects can then affect body weight gain, and muscle, fat, and bone growth, as well as reproductive, cardiac, and immune function. This study explored the effect of modifying DC by adding different dietary fiber sources on some GI hormones, along with concentrations of total bile acids, cholesterol, and glucose in plasma of growing pigs. In addition to DC, particle size (PS) has been suggested to be an important factor that affects nutrient digestibility and GI function. Overall, the results showed that DC and PC affected average daily weight gain and gain: feed of growing pigs under controlled feed intake conditions, as well as the concentrations of gastrin, insulin and total bile acids in plasma. In addition to the overall energetic and glycemic values of the diets fed in this study, results from this study also provide novel insight to the probable relationships between intake of dietary minerals and markers of gastrointestinal and metabolic function, such as total plasma bile acids, cholesterol and insulin. This information is important for scientists researching human patients with gastric acid problems, Type II diabetes, and altered bile acid and cholesterol levels.

Technical Abstract: Effect of diet composition (DC) and particle size (PS) on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma were evaluated in finishing pigs (n=8/diet) fed finely (374±29 µm) or coarsely (631±35 µm) ground corn-soybean meal (CSB), corn+35% corn dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS), and CSB with 21% soybean hulls (SBH) diets for 49 days. Diet composition, nutrient digestibility, along with fasting plasma concentrations of gastrin, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), TBA, cholesterol, and glucose were measured. Fine PS diets had greater digestible and metabolizable energy content, and dry matter, fiber, lipid, and protein digestibility than coarse PS diets. DC and PS affected plasma gastrin, insulin and TBA but not GIP, GLP-1, glucose, and cholesterol. Gastrin concentration was greater in pigs fed coarse DDGS compared with feeding coarse CSB and SBH diets. Insulin concentration of pigs fed CSB was greater in pigs fed fine compared with coarse DDGS, and was greater in coarse compared with fine SBH diets. Pigs fed DDGS had greater TBA than those fed SBH and fine CSB diets. Gastrin, insulin, TBA and cholesterol tended, or correlated with P, K and Fe intake. Insulin, TBA, and cholesterol were correlated with Na and S intake. Mineral intake affects gastrointestinal function and metabolic function. Insulin and glucose correlated with dry matter intake, and glucose was associated with lipid and protein intake. Diet energy, nutrient digestibility, and plasma gastrin, insulin and TBA concentrations were affected by DC and PS.