|Ekinci, Fatma - YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY|
|Baser, Gamze - YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY|
|Ozcan, Ezgi - YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY|
|Guclu-ustundag, Ozlem - YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY|
|Korachi, May - YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY|
|Sofu, Aytul - SULEYMAN DEMIREL UNIVERSITY|
|Blumberg, Jeffrey - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY|
|Chen, Chung-yen - JEAN MAYER HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY|
Submitted to: European Food Research and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/23/2016
Publication Date: 2/17/2016
Citation: Ekinci, F.Y., Baser, G.M., Ozcan, E., Guclu-Ustundag, O., Korachi, M., Sofu, A., Blumberg, J.B., Chen, C. 2016. Characterization of chemical, biological and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice,shalgam . European Food Research and Technology. 242(8):1355-1368. doi: 10.1007/s00217-016-2639-7.
Interpretive Summary: Non-dairy lactic acid fermented fruit or vegetable beverages are produced mostly in a traditional manner in African, Asian and Middle Eastern countries. The production of lactic acid fermented beverages from fruits such as pomegranates, cranberries, pineapples, oranges, and tomatoes and vegetables such as beets, cabbages, and carrots, is based on the use of bacteria from their natural microflora. Shalgam juice, a dark red, cloudy, and sour fermented beverage, has been a popular drink in the west and southeast regions of Turkey. Shalgam juice is produced by lactic acid fermentation of turnip, black carrot, chili powder, and extract obtained from the lactic acid fermentation of bulgur flour, sourdough, drinking water, and salt. Black carrot anthocyanins and lactic acid bacteria in shalgam juice are well known for their presumed health benefits such as reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbiological properties and anticancer effect of a commercially available shalgam juice on cultured colonic cells. We found that the predominant acid in the shalgam juice was lactic acid. The juice also contained blueberry like antioxidants, such as cyanidin-3-galactoside, -glucoside, and -arabinoside. A total of 21 Lactobacillus species and subspecies were identified in shalom juice. Shalgam juice inhibited the growth of the cultured colonic cells. Our results suggest that shalgam juice display antioxidant, probiotic and anticancer properties.
Technical Abstract: Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and antioxidant capacity and by identifying its microflora. The predominant acid in the shalgam juice was lactic acid. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-arabinoside. The total phenolic content (517 micrograms GAE/mL) and antioxidant capacity (in micromol Trolox Equivalents/mL) determined by ABTS (3.42), DPPH (4.44) and FRAP (2.26) assays of the commercial shalgam juice were similar to other common fruit juices. A total of 21 Lactobacillus species and subspecies were identified in shalgam juice using species-specific PCR with the nucleotide sequences of some of the identified lactic acid bacteria. Shalgam juice inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells lines in a dose dependent manner and had significantly higher inhibition at 3200 micrograms/mL compared to black carrot (p<0.05). These results suggest that in addition to the actions of it (poly)phenolic constituents, shalgam juice might have serve as antioxidant, probiotic and antiproliferative agents.