|WAJID, ABDUL - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|DIMITROV, KIRIL - Consultant|
|WASIM, MUHAMMAD - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|REHMANI, SHAFQUAT FATIMA - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|BASHARAT, ASMA - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|BIBI, TASRA - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|ARIF, SAIMA - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|YAQUB, TAHIR - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|TAYYAB, MUHAMMAD - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|ABABNEH, MUSTAFA - Jordan University Of Science & Technology|
|SHARMA, POONAM - Consultant|
Submitted to: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/26/2017
Publication Date: 4/27/2017
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5680210
Citation: Wajid, A., Dimitrov, K.M., Wasim, M., Rehmani, S., Basharat, A., Bibi, T., Arif, S., Yaqub, T., Tayyab, M., Ababneh, M., Sharma, P., Miller, P.J., Afonso, C.L. 2017. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in poultry and captive non-poultry avian species in Pakistan from 2011 to 2016. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 142:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.04.010.
Interpretive Summary: Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). ND is a highly contagious and fatal disease affecting poultry and a wide range of wild birds worldwide. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic and is a significant problem across Asia, Africa, North and Central America. Limited information is available of the potential role of non-poultry avian species in the maintenance and transmission of NDV. Here we describe the presence of virulent NDVs in non-poultry birds kept in captivity in different locations in Pakistan between 2012 and 2015. The identified viruses were genetically very closely related to viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan that belong to the recently identified sub-genotype VIIi that has been shown to have panzootic potential. The frequent identification of these viruses in captive birds, large bird populations and high survival rates in some farms and parks suggest that the captive-raised non-poultry birds may have a role in the maintenance of virulent NDV in endemic regions like Pakistan. Viruses of sub-genotype VIIi continue to circulate and the multiple isolations of the viruses in this study at different locations demonstrate that these viruses easily transmit into non-poultry species.
Technical Abstract: Virulent viruses of the panzootic Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) of sub-genotype VIIi were repeatedly isolated (2011–2016) from commercial chickens and from multiple non-poultry avian species in Pakistan. These findings provide evidence for the existence of epidemiological links between Newcastle disease outbreaks in commercial poultry and infections with virulent AAvV-1 strains in other avian species kept in proximity to poultry. Our results suggest that the endemicity of Newcastle disease in Pakistan involves multiple hosts and environments.