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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #330709

Research Project: Improving Quality, Stability, and Functionality of Oils and Bioactive Lipids

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Utilization of oleogels as a replacement for solid fat in aerated baked goods: Physicochemical, rheological, and tomographic characterization

item KIM, JOO - Sejong University
item LIM, JEONGTAEK - Sejong University
item LEE, JAEHWAN - Sung Kyun Kwan University
item Hwang, Hong-Sik
item LEE, SUYONG - Sejong University

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/14/2016
Publication Date: 1/31/2017
Citation: Kim, J.Y., Lim, J., Lee, J., Hwang, H.-S., Lee, S. 2017. Utilization of oleogels as a replacement for solid fat in aerated baked goods: Physicochemical, rheological, and tomographic characterization. Journal of Food Science. 82:445-452.

Interpretive Summary: Solid fats have been traditionally used in baked products due to their critical roles in properties of these products such as aeration and tender texture. However, recently, a lot of efforts have been made to reduce the use of solid fats due to high levels of saturated fats as well as the possible presence of trans fats. This study aimed to replace conventional solid fats with solid-like oleogels produced from canola oil and carnauba wax in cakes. The replacement of shortening with oleogels could provide health benefits by lowering the ratios of total saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids. Systematic studies on properties of cakes made with canola oil oleogels revealed that there were no significant property differences between the cake prepared with the conventional shortening and that with 25% oleogel, suggesting that shortening in the cake formulation can be replaced with canola oil-carnauba wax oleogel by up to 25% by weight without loss of the cake qualities. With further studies, in theory, levels of saturated fatty acids in the cake containing oleogels could be reduced down to 13.3%, compared to the control with shortening (74.2%). Therefore, this study provides valuable information on the application of vegetable oil-wax oleogels in healthier baked goods by improving fatty acid profiles.

Technical Abstract: Canola oil-carnauba wax oleogels were evaluated as a replacement for shortening in a baked cake system. The use of oleogels produced cake batters with a lower pseudoplastic property and also contributed to their viscous nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels at up to 50% was effective in maintaining the ability to hold air cells into the cake batters. The volume of cakes had an overall tendency to decrease with increasing shortening replacement with oleogels, leading to increased cake firmness. The tomographic analysis demonstrated that the total porosity and fragmentation index were reduced in the oleogel cakes, showing a more connected solid structure. The levels of saturated fatty acids in the cakes containing oleogels were significantly reduced to 13.3%, compared to the control with shortening (74.2%). As a result, the use of oleogels for shortening up to 25% produced cakes with lower levels of saturated fatty acids without quality loss.