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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stuttgart, Arkansas » Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #330697

Research Project: Developing Nutritional, Genetic, and Management Strategies to Enhance Warmwater Finfish Production

Location: Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr

Title: Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Author
item Cummins, Vaun - Kentucky State University
item Rawles, Steven - Steve
item Thompson, Kenneth - Kentucky State University
item Kobayashi, Yuka - Oregon State University
item Hager, Janelle - Kentucky State University
item Webster, Carl

Submitted to: Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/16/2017
Publication Date: 2/20/2017
Citation: Cummins, V., Rawles, S.D., Thompson, K.R., Kobayashi, Y., Hager, J., Webster, C.D. 2017. Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture. 473:337-344.

Interpretive Summary: Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, has been the fastest growing sector of global food production for the past three decades, growing at an annual rate of 8.8%/year. In 2010, global aquaculture production reached 60 million tons (excluding aquatic plants and non-food products) with an estimated farm-gate value of USD $119 billion. Global aquaculture production of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has grown dramatically within the last two decades and now represents over 71% of all marine shrimp produced, with over $11 billion in value in 2010, and accounts for 15 percent of the total value of internationally-traded fishery products, and is currently the most valuable single aquaculture commodity. Over 90% of farmed shrimp rely on high protein diets containing high percentages of marine fish meal (FM). Fish meal is used as the primary protein source in shrimp diets because of its favorable nutrient profile, essential amino acid and fatty acid composition, palatability, and relatively high digestibility. However, fish meal is a finite resource with limited availability and high demand, and therefore is considered the most expensive protein macro-ingredient in any animal diet. Future growth and profitability within the shrimp aquaculture sector is dependent upon continued improvements in diet efficiency and formulation; specifically a reduction in the inclusion of expensive marine protein sources in shrimp diets. To date, there has been mixed results when fish meal has been replaced by other protein ingredients. A potential candidate ingredient for use in combination is the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) which has been evaluated as a possible organism to use in bioconversion of manure and food compost to reduce waste residue. The prepupae are highly nutritious, comprised of 40% protein and 35% lipid. Thus, use of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal for aquaculture diets as FM replacement is warranted. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, as fed) and isoenergetic (4.0 kcal available energy/g of diet) diets containing graded levels of BSFL as replacements for protein from menhaden FM were fed to juvenile (1.24 g) Pacific white shrimp. Diet 1 (the control) was formulated similar to a commercial shrimp diet containing 25% menhaden FM and 23% soybean meal. Diets 2-6 were formulated as a dose-response series that progressively replaced protein from menhaden FM with BSFL meal at inclusion rates of 7%, 14%, 21%, 28%, and 36% of diet. Diets were fed to shrimp stocked into eighteen 110-L saltwater aquaria (30 ppt) (three replicates per dietary treatment) at a density of 15 shrimp per aquarium (50/m2) for 63 d. At the conclusion of the feeding trial, shrimp fed the control diet (containing the highest percentage of fish meal) had the highest weight gains compared to all other diets. However, 95% to 100% of most growth responses, i.e., shrimp final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and food conversion, could be obtained if replacement of FM by BSFL meal was limited to less than 25% of the diet. Future research on diet formulations using BSFLM as an ingredient in shrimp diets should examine addition of limiting amino acids to improve growth of shrimp fed diets with higher percentages of BSFLM.

Technical Abstract: Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal, produced from the larvae of Hermetia illucens, has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement in diets for rainbow trout, catfish and tilapia, but has not been examined as an alternative protein source in shrimp diets. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, as fed) and isoenergetic (16.7 KJ available energy g-1 of diet) diets containing graded levels of BSFL as replacements for protein from menhaden FM were fed to juvenile (1.24 g ± 0.01; mean ± SE) Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Diet 1 (the control) was formulated similar to a commercial shrimp diet containing 25% menhaden FM and 23% soybean meal. Diets 2-6 were formulated as a dose-response series that progressively replaced protein from menhaden FM with BSFL meal at inclusion rates of 7%, 14%, 21%, 28%, and 36% of diet; this equated to progressively replacing 16.5 % of dietary protein provided by menhaden FM. Diets were fed to juvenile shrimp stocked into eighteen 110-L saltwater aquaria (30 ppt) (three replicates per dietary treatment) at a density of 15 shrimp per aquarium (50/m2) for 63 d. Nonlinear and spline regression analysis of responses indicated that the maximum level of BSFL meal inclusion varied significantly with the response being modeled. Generally, without modification of the ingredient or replacement diet nutrient profiles, 95% to 100% of most growth responses, i.e., shrimp final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and food conversion, could be obtained if replacement of FM by BSFL meal was limited to less than 25% of the diet, depending on performance measure. Similarly, 95% or greater of maximum whole-body protein and lipid content could be achieved when BSFL inclusion was restricted to less than 29% and 15%, respectively. Comparison of amino acid profiles in the test diets with recent requirement estimates for limiting amino acids in BSFL meal also suggest future strategies for increasing dietary substitution of FM with BSFL.