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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Healthy Processed Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #330475

Research Project: Adding Value to Plant-Based Waste Materials through Development of Novel, Healthy Ingredients and Functional Foods

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: Endocytosis of corn oil-caseinate emulsions in vitro: impacts of droplet sizes

item FAN, YUTING - Shenzhen University
item Zhang, Yuzhu
item Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally
item YI, JIANG - Shenzhen University

Submitted to: Food Hydrocolloids
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/24/2017
Publication Date: 10/26/2017
Citation: Fan, Y., Zhang, Y., Yokoyama, W.H., Yi, J. 2017. Endocytosis of corn oil-caseinate emulsions in vitro: impacts of droplet sizes. Food Hydrocolloids. 7:349.

Interpretive Summary: Nano-particles of corn oil encapsulated by casein were developed. The nano-particles were taken up by colon epithelial cells grown in culture. The mechanism appears to require energy provided by the cells. The nano-particles were internalized by specific areas of the cell surface. The nano-particles may be used to deliver fat soluble bioactive compounds.

Technical Abstract: The relative uptake and mechanisms of lipid-based emulsions of three different particle diameters by Caco-2 cells were studied. The corn oil-sodium caseinate emulsions showed little or no cytotoxicity even at 2 mg/mL protein concentration for any of the three particle size emulsions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of Nile red containing emulsions showed that the lipid-based emulsions were absorbed by Caco-2 cells. A negative correlation between the mean particle size and cellular uptake was observed. There was a time-dependent and energy-dependent uptake as shown by incubation at different times and treatment with sodium azide a general inhibitor of active transport. The internalization of nanoemulsion droplets into Caco-2 cells mainly occurred through clathrin- and caveolae/lipid raft-related pathways as well as macropinocytosis route as shown by the use of specific pathway inhibitors. Caveolae/lipid raft-mediated route was the main endocytosis pathway. Permeability of the emulsion through the apical or basal routes also suggested that active transport may be the main route for lipid-based nanoemulsions. The results may assist in the design and application of lipid-based nanoemulsion in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals delivery.