Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics ResearchTitle: Genes expressed differentially in Hessian fly larvae feeding in resistant and susceptible plants
|LIU, SANZHEN - Kansas State University|
|WANG, HAIYAN - Kansas State University|
|CHENG, XIAOYAN - Kansas State University|
|EL BOUHSSINI, MUSTAPHA - International Center For Agricultural Research In The Dry Areas (ICARDA)|
|WHITWORTH, R. JEFF - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/5/2016
Publication Date: 8/12/2016
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/63190
Citation: Chen, M., Liu, S., Wang, H., Cheng, X., El Bouhssini, M., Whitworth, R. 2016. Genes expressed differentially in Hessian fly larvae feeding in resistant and susceptible plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17:1324. doi:10.3390/ijms17081324.
Interpretive Summary: Hessian fly is a destructive pest of wheat and is mainly controlled by resistant cultivars. Hessian fly manipulates susceptible plants extensively, but is unable to manipulate resistant plants, and thus dies in them. In this study, we identified many genes that were expressed differently between Hessian flies feeding in resistant plants and those feeding in susceptible plants. Hessian flies fed in resistant plants expressed more cytochrome P450 genes, which tend to be involved in detoxification processes, suggesting that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may play important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Expression levels of genes involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis suggested that flies on resistant plants ultimately died of starvation. We also found that many genes encoding secreted salivary proteins were expressed at higher levels in Hessian flies feeding in resistant plants, indicating that these genes may play critical roles for Hessian flies to manipulate host plant metabolism. This study provides a foundation for future research that may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms for fly larvae to manipulate wheat plants, which may eventually lead to wheat cultivars with more durable resistance to the Hessian fly pest.
Technical Abstract: The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. Hessian fly larvae manipulate susceptible plants extensively, but are unable to manipulate resistant plants and thus die in them. The mechanisms for Hessian fly larvae to manipulate susceptible plants and but die in resistant plants remain unknown. Here we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant and susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5,401, 6,902, 8,457, and 5,202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (P=0.05) in the respective paired comparisons. Many more genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA metabolism, and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae in resistant plants, indicating that general metabolism and protein production were suppressed in those larvae. Interestingly, the percentages of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae in resistant plants were comparable to or higher than the percentages of those genes with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae in resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors to play critical roles as effectors for plant manipulation.