|Brabec, Daniel - Dan|
|Pearson, Thomas - Amgen, Inc|
|Carsrud, Bradley - Sgs Seed Services|
Submitted to: Cereal Research Communications
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/8/2017
Publication Date: 7/1/2017
Citation: Brabec, D.L., Guttieri, M.J., Pearson, T., Carsrud, B. 2017. Effectiveness of an image-based sorter to select for kernel color within early segregating hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) populations. Cereal Research Communications. 45(3): 488-499. doi: 10.1556/0806.45.2017.034.
Interpretive Summary: Hard white winter wheat is an emerging market class of wheat in regions that traditionally produce hard red winter wheat because consumers often prefer the appearance and flavor of white wheat, and because white wheat can be optimally milled to obtain higher flour yields than red wheat. However, marketing opportunities are more limited for white wheat, and under some growing conditions red kernel wheat is preferred over white. Therefore, new tools, such as an image-based sorter developed by USDA ARS that can quickly and accurately identify and sort seeds with different colors, can be used for mass selection to improve the efficiency of selection for kernel color. The image-based sorter effectively separated red and white kernels of wheat from six segregating populations made by crossing hard white winter and hard red winter wheat parents. Over three generations of color sorting selection using the image-based sorter, sorting out white kernels increased the frequency of white kernels in all six segregating populations, although the frequency of white kernels varied with the population and where the wheat was grown. However, sorting out the red kernels did not consistently decrease the frequency of white wheat kernels relative to unsorted populations. Given the difficulties associated with visually selecting for kernel color, the sorter is a valuable tool for wheat breeders in selecting for white kernel genotypes and can be readily integrated into bulk population breeding systems that are in widespread use in wheat breeding.
Technical Abstract: Effective mass selection tools are needed to enrich hard winter wheat breeding populations from red wheat × white wheat crosses while maintaining large population sizes in early breeding generations. Tools also are needed to select for white-seeded genotypes or to eliminate white-seeded genotypes when red genotypes are preferred. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an image sorter to select for kernel color within segregating hard winter wheat populations. Three sequential cycles of sorting and generation advancement were applied to six segregating populations, each originating from a different combination of white and red parent and with sorting starting with the F3 generation. At each generation, samples of red-sorted, white-sorted, and unsorted populations, along with the parents of the populations, were planted in replicated trials at multiple locations. Sorting for white seed increased the frequency of white seed, with substantial gains from selection after three cycles. Sorting for red seed decreased the frequency of white seed, however gains were modest and generally required three cycles of selection for significant effect. Optical mass selection for white seed color can be effectively integrated into bulk population breeding strategies for wheat improvement.