|PINERO, JAIME - Lincoln University Of Missouri|
|LEBLANC, LUC - University Of Idaho|
|MAU, RON - University Of Hawaii|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/1/2016
Publication Date: 12/1/2016
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Pinero, J.C., Leblanc, L., Manoukis, N., Mau, R.F. 2016. Fruit flies research and development in Africa-towards a sustainable management strategy to improve horticulture.In:Switzerland, Springer International Publishing,p.673-693.
Interpretive Summary: Three important goals of the AWPM were (1) to develop economical and ecologically sound technologies (2) to transfer those technologies to fruit and vegetable growers, and (3) to implement comprehensive educational programs targeting farmers and citizens in an effort to increase adoption rates of the IPM technologies that were developed. Various suppression technologies (sanitation, bait spraying, male annihilation, and sterile male and parasitoid releases) were utilized in this program. The Hawaii fruit fly AWPM program demonstrated that cultural practices (e.g. field sanitation) can support synergies between the other components of IPM such as protein bait sprays, male lures and biological control. The program made major economic contributions to agriculture in Hawaii, and promoted production of a greater diversity of crops while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides thus balancing the ecological, social, and economic aspects of farming in a move toward sustainability. Because Africa now has a similar complex of fruit fly species attacking tropical fruits and vegetables to those found in Hawaii, the Hawaii AWPM program for fruit flies has particular relevance to Africa for sustainable control of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera spp.
Technical Abstract: Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pests attacking tropical fruits and vegetables in Hawaii. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program was initiated in 1999 to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The AWPM program developed and integrated biologically-based pest technologies into a comprehensive management package that was economically viable, environmentally sensitive and sustainable. The technologies included: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays, 3) male annihilation with male lures, and (4) sterile fly and parasitoid releases. In a cooperative effort the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, the University of Hawaii, Hawaii State Department of Agriculture, and industry developed environmentally friendly control technologies, secured special local needs registrations, implemented a fruit fly IPM extension educational program, and transferred novel technologies to local farmers and home growers. The program demonstrated that if you get growers to adopt the IPM components you could suppress fruit flies throughout large areas. The program received seven major awards for IPM technology transfer activities. This chapter summarizes highlights of this highly successful community-based IPM program. Although formal funding of the Hawaii AWPM program ended in 2008, transfer of AWPM components and technology has continued locally, nationally, and internationally through 2015. This includes introduction of fruit fly natural enemies into other countries, biopesticide products such as spinosad bait sprays, spinosad male annihilation treatments, and soil drenches. These IPM tools will continue to further reduce the use of organophosphate insecticides for fruit fly control, thus balancing the ecological, social, and economic aspects of farming in a move toward greater sustainability.