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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #329643

Research Project: Development and Characterization of Soybean Germplasm, Curation of Stored Accessions, and Regional Evaluations of New Genotypes

Location: Crop Genetics Research

Title: Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature affect seed composition, mineral nutrition, and 15N and 13C dynamics in soybean genotypes under controlled environments

Author
item Bellaloui, Nacer
item HU, YANBO - Northeast Forestry University
item Mengistu, Alemu
item Abbas, Hamed
item KASSEM, ABDELMAJID - Fayetteville State University
item TIGABU, MULUALEM - Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences

Submitted to: Atlas Journal of Plant Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/29/2016
Publication Date: 7/20/2016
Citation: Bellaloui, N., Hu, Y., Mengistu, A., Abbas, H.K., Kassem, A.M., Tigabu, M. 2016. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature affect seed composition, mineral nutrition, and 15N and 13C dynamics in soybean genotypes under controlled environments. Atlas Journal of Plant Biology. 56-65. https://doi.org/10.5147/ajpb.v0i0.114.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5147/ajpb.v0i0.114

Interpretive Summary: Seed nutrition is predicted to be affected by global climate changes due to elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperatures. Information on the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperatures on seed nutrition is very limited in spite of its importance for seed quality (nutrition) and food security. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperatures on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral nutrition (major and minor minerals) in soybean cultivars under controlled environments. The results showed that elevated temperature, or a combination of elevated temperature and elevated carbon dioxide, resulted in a decrease in seed protein and linolenic acid concentrations and increases in total oil and oleic acid. Seed sucrose, glucose, and fructose decreased, but raffinose and stachyose were relatively stable. Minerals also decreased under elevated temperature and carbon dioxide. Among the nutrients decreased were nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and boron (B). No consistent pattern was shown for magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu). Also, the use of isotope technology showed that the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen metabolism could be altered. The increase of oil and oleic acid and low linolenic acid is desirable, as high oleic acid and low linolenic acid contribute to the stability and shelf-life of oil. Low protein and high oil was due to the inverse relationship between protein and oil. The research showed that seed nutrition can be affected by elevated temperature alone or elevated temperature with elevated carbon dioxide. The knowledge obtained from this research is beneficial to soybean breeders so they can plan to select for varieties with higher seed nutritional qualities and efficient mineral use because these characteristics are related to seed production, quality, and food security. Also, it provides us with further knowledge on the effect of climate change on seed quality

Technical Abstract: Seed nutrition of crops can be affected by global climate changes due to elevated CO2 and elevated temperatures. Information on the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed nutrition is very limited in spite of its importance to seed quality and food security. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and elevated temperature on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral nutrition (macro- and micro-nutrients) in soybean cultivars under controlled environments. Soybean cultivars (William 82, maturity group III; and Hutcheson, maturity group V) were grown under growth chamber controlled environments during the seed-fill stage (R5). The treatments for CO2 were ambient CO2 concentrations (360 µmol mol-1) and elevated CO2 concentration (700 µmol mol-1). For temperatures, the treatments were normal temperature (26/16 °C) and elevated (45/35 °C). Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions until they reached the R5 stage, then transferred to growth chambers until maturity (R8). Individual treatments and their combinations were used. There were four treatments (T1= 26/16 °C and 360 µmol mol-1; T2= 26/16 °C and 700 µmol mol-1, T3= 45/35 °C and 360 µmol mol-1; T4=45/35 °C and 700 µmol mol-1). Elevated temperature or a combination of elevated temperature and elevated CO2 resulted in a decrease in seed protein and linolenic acid concentrations and increases in oil and oleic acid in both cultivars. Seed sucrose, glucose, and fructose decreased, but raffinose and stachyose were relatively stable. Minerals also decreased under elevated temperature and elevated CO2. Among those that decreased were N, P, K, Zn, Fe, and B. No consistent pattern was shown for Mg, Mn, and Cu. Natural abundance of 15N and 13C isotopes was altered only under high temperature regardless of CO2 concentration, indicating that the changes of nitrogen and carbon metabolism occurred at elevated temperature. Elevated CO2 and elevated temperature affected both cultivars, but at different magnitudes due to genotypic differences. The increase of oil and oleic acid and decreased linolenic acid is desirable, as high oleic acid and decrease of linolenic acid contribute to oil stability and longer shelf-life. The combination of low protein and high oil was due to the inverse relationship between them. This research showed that seed composition and seed mineral nutrients can be affected by elevated temperature alone or elevated temperature with elevated CO2 combined. This information is beneficial to soybean breeders so they can begin selecting varieties for higher seed nutritional qualities and efficient mineral nutrient use and uptake, as these traits are related to seed production, seed quality, and food security. Also, it provides us with further knowledge on the effect of climate change on seed quality.