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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fort Pierce, Florida » U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory » Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #329635

Research Project: Alternatives to Methyl Bromide Soil Fumigation for Vegetable and Floriculture Production

Location: Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research

Title: Evaluation of steam and soil solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria control in Florida floriculture crops

Author
item Burelle, Nancy
item Rosskopf, Erin
item BUTLER, DAVID - University Of Tennessee
item FENNIMORE, STEVE - University Of California
item HOLZIGER, JOHN - Holzinger Flowers, Inc

Submitted to: Journal of Nematology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/16/2016
Publication Date: 9/1/2016
Citation: Burelle, N.K., Rosskopf, E.N., Butler, D., Fennimore, S., Holziger, J. 2016. Evaluation of steam and soil solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria control in Florida floriculture crops. Journal of Nematology. 48(3):183-192.

Interpretive Summary: Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematodes in two years of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if pre-plant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide. Trials were conducted in a field with naturally-occurring nematode populations. Treatments were; solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using 7.6 cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6 mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and methyl bromide. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 m by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a four week solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflower were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil nematode were lower in both steam treatments and in methyl bromide compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments. Both steam treatments also provided control of nematodes in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by methyl bromide. Both steam treatments also reduced nematodes in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding control with methyl bromide. Nematodes in soil increased in solarization alone. Solarization alone also had higher gall ratings on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflower than all other treatments. Although steam provided excellent control of nematodes in this study, plant growth was reduced.

Technical Abstract: Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in two years of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if pre-plant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally-occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were; solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using standard 7.6 cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6 mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chlorpicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 m by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a four week solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium x belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus anuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments. Both steam treatments also provided control of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding control with MeBr. M. arenaria in soil increased in solarization alone. Solarization alone also had higher gall ratings on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflower than all other treatments. Although steam provided excellent control of M. arenaria in this study, plant growth was reduced.