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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fort Pierce, Florida » U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory » Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #329456

Research Project: Alternatives to Methyl Bromide Soil Fumigation for Vegetable and Floriculture Production

Location: Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research

Title: Grafting and Paladin™ Pic-21 for nematode and weed management in vegetable production

Author
item Burelle, Nancy
item Butler, David - University Of Tennessee
item Hong, Jason
item Bausher, Michael
item Mccollum, Thomas
item Rosskopf, Erin

Submitted to: Journal of Nematology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/23/2016
Publication Date: 12/1/2016
Citation: Burelle, N.K., Butler, D., Hong, J.C., Bausher, M.G., McCollum, T.G., Rosskopf, E.N. 2016. Grafting and Paladin™ Pic-21 for nematode and weed management in vegetable production. Journal of Nematology. 48(4):231-240.

Interpretive Summary: Field trials were conducted to evaluate the combined use of grafting and the new soil fumigant, Paladin™, (DMDS:chloropicrin) for root-knot nematode and weed control in tomato and melon. Three tomato rootstocks were evaluated along with the non-grafted scion control. A double-crop of melon was planted into existing beds after tomatoes were harvested and two melon rootstocks were evaluated with the non-grafted scion in year 1. In year 2, watermelon followed the tomato crop with and two rootstocks were tested. Non-grafted watermelon was evaluated as the control. Four soil treatments were applied in early fall in both years of the study under metalized film and were Paladin™, methyl bromide, Midas, and a non-fumigated control. Root-knot nematode populations in soil were highest in control plots and in the non-grafted tomato rootstock. Soil fumigant treatments did not differ statistically from each other. All soil fumigants produced similar tomato plant growth, which was greater than the control. All treatments reduced nematodes isolated from roots compared to the control. Galling on tomato was highest in control plots and non-grafted plants. In melon, nematodes extracted from soil did not differ among melon rootstocks, but numbers isolated from the melon rootstocks were increased in one rootstock tested. All fumigants tested provided protection for all melon rootstocks against galling by nematodes compared to the control. In watermelon, nematode numbers in soil and roots did not differ among soil treatments or watermelon rootstocks, and yield was lower in both grafted rootstocks compared with the non-grafted control. All fumigant treatments increased average fruit weight of watermelon compared with the control, and provided effective weed control, keeping the most predominant weed, purple nutsedge, density low. Grafting commercial variety scions onto nematode-resistant rootstocks has good potential for nematode management in combination with soil fumigants or as a stand-alone component in sustainable crop production systems.

Technical Abstract: Field trials were conducted over two years in a Meloidogyne incognita-infested field to evaluate the combined use of grafting and Paladin™ (DMDS:chloropicrin) for root-knot nematode and weed control in tomato and melon. Tomato rootstocks evaluated were; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’. ‘Florida 47’ was used as the scion and as the non-grafted control. A double-crop of melon was planted into existing beds after tomatoes were harvested. Two melon rootstocks, C. metulifer and ‘Tetsukabuto’, were evaluated with the non-grafted scion ‘Athena’ in year 1. In year 2, watermelon followed the tomato crop with scion variety ‘Tri-X Palomar’ grafted onto ‘Emphasis’ and ‘Strongtosa’ rootstocks. Non-grafted ‘Tri-X Palomar’ watermelon was evaluated as the control. Four soil treatments were applied in early fall in both years of the study under Canslit metalized film; Paladin™ (468 L/ha, 79:21 DMDS:chloropicrin v:v), methyl bromide (225 kg/ha, 67:33 methyl bromide:chloropicrin v:v), Midas (112 kg/ha, 50:50 iodomethane:chloropicrin v:v), and a non-fumigated, herbicide-treated control. M. incognita populations in soil were highest in control plots and in the non-grafted tomato rootstock. Soil fumigant treatments did not differ statistically from each other. All soil fumigants produced similar tomato plant growth, which was greater than the control. All treatments reduced M. incognita J2 isolated from roots compared to the control. Tomato grafted onto ‘Multifort’ rootstock produced the largest and healthiest roots; however, the number of M. incognita isolated from roots did not differ among the tomato rootstocks tested. Galling on tomato was highest in control plots and non-grafted plants. In melon, M. incognita J2 extracted from soil did not differ among melon rootstocks, but numbers isolated from the melon rootstocks were increased in ‘Tetsukabuto’ compared with C. metuliferus. ‘Tetsukabuto’ rootstock produced larger root systems than non-grafted ‘Athena’. All fumigants tested provided protection for all melon rootstocks against galling by M. incognita compared to the control. Galling on C. metuliferus rootstock was less in all fumigant treatments compared with non-grafted ‘Athena’ and ‘Tetsukabuto’. In watermelon, M. incognita numbers in soil and roots did not differ among soil treatments or watermelon rootstocks, and yield was lower in both grafted rootstocks compared with the non-grafted control. All fumigant treatments increased average fruit weight of watermelon compared with the control, and provided effective weed control, keeping the most predominant weed, purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), density at or below 1/m row. Grafting commercial variety scions onto M. incognita-resistant rootstocks has good potential for nematode management in combination with soil fumigants or as a stand-alone component in sustainable crop production systems.