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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Crops Pathology and Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #329315

Research Project: Sustainable Vineyard Production Systems

Location: Crops Pathology and Genetics Research

Title: Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

Author
item Hirzel, David - University Of California
item Steenwerth, Kerri
item Parikh, Sanjai - University Of California
item Oberholster, Anita - University Of California

Submitted to: Agricultural Water Management
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/22/2016
Publication Date: 11/18/2016
Citation: Hirzel, D.R., Steenwerth, K.L., Parikh, S.J., Oberholster, A. 2016. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality. Agricultural Water Management. 180:178-189. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2016.10.019.

Interpretive Summary: This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensoryattributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production wasexamined, including irrigation water and soil samples, leaves and grapes at both veraison and harvest,analysis of the wine and a sensory comparison of the finished products. Samples were analyzed forNa+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+cations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and thephenolic composition of the grapes and wine samples were analyzed by reverse phase high performanceliquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Na+and K+concentrations were higher in the winery wastewatercompared to the control water due to the presence of grape solids and detergents. The WW irrigatedsoil samples showed accumulations of Na+and K+cations while the leaf samples from vines receivingWW contained more Na+and Mg2+and less K+and Ca2+than the control water treatments. These valueswere not, however, close to values that would limit growth. The grape samples did not show a consistenttrend between the two vineyards and displayed no linear relationship with accumulation of cations inthe leaves. Phenolic analyses showed minor although significant differences between treatments, butsensory analysis did not reveal any perceived impact on the wines.

Technical Abstract: Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was examined, including irrigation water and soil samples, leaves and grapes at both veraison and harvest, analysis of the wine and a sensory comparison of the finished products. Samples were analyzed for Na+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+ cations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and the phenolic composition of the grapes and wine samples were analyzed by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Na+ and K+ concentrations were higher in the winery wastewater compared to the control water due to the presence of grape solids and detergents. The WW irrigated soil samples showed accumulations of Na+ and K+ cations while the leaf samples from vines receiving WW contained more Na+ and Mg2+ and less K+ and Ca2+ than the control water treatments. These values were not, however, close to limiting growth. The grape samples did not show a consistent trend between the two vineyards and displayed no linear relationship with cation accumulations in the leaves. Phenolic analyses showed minor although significant differences between treatments, but sensory analysis did not reveal any perceived impact on the wines.