Submitted to: Citrograph
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/16/2016
Publication Date: 7/7/2016
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Souder, S., Morse, J.G., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., Haviland, D.R., Kabashima, J.N., Faber, B.A. 2016. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies. Citrograph. 7(3):60-63. Interpretive Summary: True fruit flies are a significant economic and agricultural concern in California because of the wide range of potential hosts, including citrus. Research and development of improved detection and male annihilation systems may increase efficiency of exclusion and suppression programs in the United States. Our results suggest that a solid multilure dispenser with an insecticidal strip could be used in large survey programs for detection of fruit flies. In addition, chemical degradation data are being analyzed to show breakdown of lure and insecticide.
Technical Abstract: There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers of traps individually baited with the highly attractive male-specific lures such as trimedlure(TML), cue-lure or raspberry ketone(C-L/RK), and methyl eugenol(ME), to combat such pests as the Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly, respectively. In conjunction with these liquid attractants, current “killing” methods include broad-spectrum liquid insecticides, such as naled or malathion which pose environmental and worker safety challenges. As a result, replacing traditional liquid formulations of lures and insecticides with safer alternatives, without compromising performance levels has been a primary research goal. This study led by USDA and University of California researchers evaluated an improved multilure solid dispenser called Mallet TMR weathered in California with subsequent field trials of responding wild flies in Hawaii. Two potential systems were evaluated, the first, Mallet TMR impregnated with DDVP insecticide; the second, Mallet TMR without DDVP, but accompanied by an insecticidal strip Hercon VAPORTAPE II. The present study suggest traps baited with a solid formulation containing three lures(TML, ME, and RK plus the toxicant DDVP=Mallet TMR), but with a high concentration of ME and a large dispenser surface area, could be used in large survey programs for detection of fruit flies. These solid wafers are safer and more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, thus reducing the costs of large survey and detection programs in California by 66%.