|MORSE, JOSEPH - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA|
|GRAFTON-CARDWELL, ELIZABETH - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA|
|HAVILAND, DAVID - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE|
|KABASHIMA, JOHN - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE|
|FABER, BEN - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE|
|NKOMO, EDDIE - FARMA TECH INTERNATIONAL CORP.|
|COOK, PETER - FARMA TECH INTERNATIONAL CORP.|
|STARK, JOHN - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/12/2017
Publication Date: 6/13/2017
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Souder, S., Morse, J.G., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., Haviland, D.R., Kabashima, J.N., Faber, B.A., Mackey, B.E., Nkomo, E., Cook, P., Stark, J.D. 2017. Chemical degradation of TMR multi-lure dispensers for fruit fly detection weathered under California climatic conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology. doi:10.1093/jee/tox159.
Interpretive Summary: True fruit flies are a significant economic and agricultural concern in California because of the wide range of potential hosts, including citrus. Research and development of improved detection and male annihilation systems may increase efficiency of exclusion and suppression programs in the United States. Our results suggest that a solid multilure dispenser with an insecticidal strip could be used in large survey programs for detection of fruit flies. In addition, chemical degradation data are being analyzed to show breakdown of lure and insecticide.
Technical Abstract: There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers of traps individually baited with the highly attractive male-specific lures such as trimedlure (TML), cue-lure or raspberry ketone (C-L/RK), and methyl eugenol (ME), to combat such pests as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, respectively. In conjunction with these liquid attractants, current “killing” methods include broad-spectrum liquid insecticides, such as naled or malathion which pose environmental and worker safety challenges. As a result, replacing traditional liquid formulations of lures and insecticides with safer alternatives, without compromising performance levels has been a primary research goal. This study lead by Roger Vargas, USDA, and University of California colleagues evaluated an improved multilure solid dispenser called Mallet TMR weathered in California with subsequent field trials of responding wild flies in Hawaii. Two potential systems were evaluated, the first, Mallet TMR impregnated with DDVP insecticide; the second, Mallet TMR without DDVP, but accompanied by an insecticidal strip Hercon VAPORTAPETM II. The present study suggest traps baited with a solid formulation containing three lures (TML, ME, and RK plus the toxicant DDVP=Mallet TMR), but with a high concentration of ME and a large dispenser surface area, could be used in large survey programs for detection of fruit flies. These solid wafers are safer and more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, thus reducing the costs of large survey and detection programs in California by 66%. For the first time, chemical degradation of multiple lures within a single dispenser is demonstrated.