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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Auburn, Alabama » Aquatic Animal Health Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #328870

Research Project: Pathogen Characterization, Host Immune Response and Development of Strategies to Reduce Losses to Disease in Aquaculture

Location: Aquatic Animal Health Research

Title: Antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from Curcuma longa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

Author
item Liu, Yan-meng - Guangdong University
item Zhang, Qi-zhong - Guangdong University
item Xu, Dehai
item Fu, Yao-wu - Guangdong University
item Lin, De-jie - Guangdong University
item Zhou, Sheng-yu - Guangdong University
item Li, J.p. - Guangdong University

Submitted to: Veterinary Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/14/2017
Publication Date: 2/26/2017
Citation: Liu, Y., Zhang, Q., Xu, D., Fu, Y., Lin, D., Zhou, S., Li, J. 2017. Antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from Curcuma longa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp. Veterinary Parasitology. 236:128-136.

Interpretive Summary: The protozoa parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) leads to high fish mortality and causes heavy economic loss in aquaculture. Therapeutants that can be used in fish to treat parasites are limited so there is an urgent need to find new parasiticides to treat Ich infections. In the present study, a polyphenol compound curcumin was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the anti-parasite efficacy. Anti-parasite efficacies of curcumin were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that curcumin resulted in 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 1 mg/L within 21.7 ± 1.5 min. Curcumin at 4 mg/L completely cured the infected grass carp and protected naive fish from Ich infection after 10 days exposure. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of curcumin to grass carp was 56.8 mg/L, which was 187 fold higher than LC50 to the parasite (0.303 mg/L) so curcumin was safe for parasite treatment in fish. Based on the results, curcumin could be used as a natural anti-parasite agent. The study results are important to aquaculture and will help to develop effective parasiticides against I. multifiliis.

Technical Abstract: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-Ich theronts. Anti-Ich efficacies of curcumin were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that curcumin resulted in 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 1 mg/L within 21.7 ± 1.5 min. Commercial curcumin showed similar efficacy with curcumin against I. multifiliis theronts. Curcumin at 4 mg/L completely cured the infected grass carp and protected naive fish from Ich infection after 10 days exposure. The 4 h median effective concentration (EC50) of curcumin to I. multifiliis theronts and the 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of curcumin to grass carp were 0.303 mg/L and 56.8 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of curcumin was approximately 187.4 times of EC50 to theronts. Therefore, curcumin has the potential to be an effective, safe, and low-cost therapeutant for controlling ichthyophthiriasis in aquaculture.