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ARS Home » Plains Area » Clay Center, Nebraska » U.S. Meat Animal Research Center » Nutrition and Environmental Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #328498

Research Project: Improved Nutrient Efficiency of Beef Cattle and Swine

Location: Nutrition and Environmental Management Research

Title: Relationships between the genes expressed in the mesenteric adipose tissue of beef cattle and feed intake and gain

Author
item Lindholm-perry, Amanda
item Cunningham, Hannah - University Of Wyoming
item Kuehn, Larry
item Vallet, Jeffrey - Jeff
item Keele, John
item Foote, Andrew
item Cammack, K - University Of Wyoming
item Freetly, Harvey

Submitted to: Animal Genetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017
Publication Date: 7/13/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5801842
Citation: Lindholm-Perry, A.K., Cunningham, H.C., Kuehn, L.A., Vallet, J.L., Keele, J.W., Foote, A.P., Cammack, K.M., Freetly, H.C. 2017. Relationships between the genes expressed in the mesenteric adipose tissue of beef cattle and feed intake and gain. Animal Genetics. 48(4):386-394. https://doi.org/10.1111/age.12565.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/age.12565

Interpretive Summary: Mesenteric fat, a depot within the visceral fat, is responsible for releasing more free fatty acids into the plasma than subcutaneous fat, and in humans, these fat depots contribute to obesity and obesity-related disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genes expressed in the mesenteric fat of beef cattle were associated with body weight gain and feed intake. A group of 154 steers were placed on a feeding study and sixteen steers with the highest and lowest weight gain and the highest and lowest feed intake were used for this study. Mesenteric fat from these animals was obtained and evaluated for differences in gene expression. A total of 1,831 genes were identified as differentially expressed among steers with variation in feed intake and gain. Many of these genes were involved with metabolic processes such as protein degradation or breakdown and gene transcription and translation. Pathway analysis was also performed on the differentially expressed genes. Genes involved in the superoxide radical degradation pathway were identified as over-represented based on the differential expression of the genes GPX7, SOD2 and TYRP1. The genes GPX7 and SOD2 were in lower transcript abundance and TYRP1 was higher in transcript abundance among the low gain-high feed intake animals suggesting a potential role for oxidative stress or inflammatory pathways among some of these animals. The retinoate biosynthesis pathway was also enriched due to the differential expression of the several genes more highly expressed in the low gain-high intake animals. An increase in retinoic acid may play a role in reducing body weight and adiposity Mesenteric fat is a metabolically active tissue and in this study, genes involved in proteolysis, transcription, translation, transport and oxidative stress were differentially expressed among beef steers with variation in body weight gain and feed intake.

Technical Abstract: Mesenteric fat, a depot within the visceral fat, accumulates in cattle during maturation and finishing and may be a potential source of production inefficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genes expressed in the mesenteric fat of steers were associated with body weight gain and feed intake. Sixteen steers chosen by their rank of distance from the bivariate mean for gain and feed intake were used for this study. Mesenteric fat was obtained and evaluated for differences in gene expression. A total of 1831 genes were identified as differentially expressed among steers with variation in feed intake and gain. Many of these genes were involved with metabolic processes such as proteolysis, transcription and translation. In addition, the Gene Ontology annotations including transport and localization were both over-represented among the differentially expressed genes. Pathway analysis was also performed on the differentially expressed genes. The superoxide radical degradation pathway was identified as over-represented based on the differential expression of the genes GPX7, SOD2 and TYRP1, suggesting a potential role for oxidative stress or inflammatory pathways among low gain–high intake animals. GPX7 and SOD2 were in lower transcript abundance, and TYRP1 was higher in transcript abundance among the low gain–high feed intake animals. The retinoate biosynthesis pathway was also enriched due to the differential expression of the genes AKR1C3, ALDH8A1, RDH8, RDH13 and SDR9C7. These genes were all more highly expressed in the low gain–high intake animals. The glycerol degradation and granzyme A signaling pathways were both associated with gain. Three glycerol kinase genes and the GZMA gene were differentially expressed among high vs. low gain animals. Mesenteric fat is a metabolically active tissue, and in this study, genes involved in proteolysis, transcription, translation, transport immune function, glycerol degradation and oxidative stress were differentially expressed among beef steers with variation in body weight gain and feed intake.