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Research Project: USDA Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

Location: Nutrient Data Laboratory

Title: Analytical content and variability of vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin/mineral products: national estimates for the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID)

Author
item Andrews, Karen - University Of Maryland
item Roseland, Janet
item Gusev, Pavel - University Of Maryland
item Palachuvattil, Joel - University Of Maryland
item Dang, Phuong - University Of Maryland
item Svarala, Sushma - University Of Maryland
item Pehrsson, Pamela
item Douglass, Larry - Consultant
item Dwyer, Johanna - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)
item Betz, Joseph - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)
item Bailey, Regan - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/7/2016
Publication Date: 12/14/2016
Citation: Andrews, K.W., Roseland, J.M., Gusev, P.A., Palachuvattil, J., Dang, P.T., Svarala, S., Pehrsson, P.R., Douglass, L.W., Dwyer, J.T., Betz, J.M., Bailey, R.L. 2016. Analytical content and variability of vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin/mineral products: national estimates for the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1.

Interpretive Summary: same as abstract

Technical Abstract: Multivitamin/mineral products (MVMs) are the most commonly reported dietary supplements used by adults in the United States. During manufacturing, some MVM ingredients are added in amounts exceeding the label claims in order to compensate for losses during the shelf life. Establishing the health benefits and harms of MVMs requires accurate estimates of nutrient intakes from MVMs based on measures of actual rather than labeled ingredient amounts. The objective of this study is to compare analytically measured vitamin and mineral content to label values in a nationally representative sample of adult MVMs. For this study, representative adult MVMs were purchased from multiple market channels following a sampling plan. Samples were chemically analyzed for vitamin and mineral content with certified reference materials in qualified laboratories. For each ingredient, predicted mean percent differences between analytically obtained and labeled amounts were calculated using regression equations. Predicted mean percent differences exceeded labeled amounts by 3 -13% for copper, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, folic acid, riboflavin, vitamins B-12, C, and E; and by ~25% for selenium and iodine, regardless of the label level. In contrast, thiamin, vitamin B-6, calcium, iron and zinc had linear or quadratic relationships between the label and percent differences with ranges from -6.5 to 8.6%, -3.5 to 21%, 7.1 to 29.3%, -0.5 to 16.4, and -1.9 to 8.1%, respectively. The among-product variability was the largest source of content variability from the regression lines for most ingredients, followed by lot and sample variabilities. Ingredient overages were captured in products labeled both below or even above Recommended Dietary Allowances and the Upper Limits. In conclusion, the mean estimates varied by ingredient for adult MVM products, but most were above the labeled levels. The analytically adjusted amounts of 18 ingredients are now linked to the adult MVMs reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey via the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) (http://dsid.usda.nih.gov). Researchers can apply these analytical values instead of labels to more accurately quantify nutrient intakes from adult MVMs.