|LEBLANC, LUC - University Of Idaho|
|BADJI, KEMO - Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS)|
Submitted to: Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/20/2016
Publication Date: 12/20/2016
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Leblanc, L., McKenney, M.P., Mackey, B.E., Badji, K. 2016. Rearing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly and its introduction into Senegal against Oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 48:85-94.
Interpretive Summary: Fruit flies(Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most destructive pests of agriculture in the world. With the recent spread of Bactrocera species into new areas of the world and failed eradication attempts, there has been renewed interest in biological control for sustainable economic suppression of these destructive and invasive fruit pests particularly in Africa. The United States Department of Agriculture(USDA), Agricultural Research Service(ARS) Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center(DKI-USPBARC) has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp, using classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. Hawaii has been a source of parasitoids which are natural enemies used for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, the Pacific Island Nations, and Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha species. The objective of this study was to introduce parasitoids into Senegal, with 2 yr of results reported. In the present study we report on rearing of Fopius arisanus on Ceratitis capitata or Mediterranean fruit fly, in comparison to the usual rearing protocol on Bactrocera dorsalis, or oriental fruit fly, and the introduction and establishment in the Casamance region of Senegal. This study indicated that F.arisanus could be reared in the laboratory or recovered from heavily-infested fruits for transport and establishment in different areas or countries in tropical Africa where there is a diversity of different habitats. Based on the results from the Senegal releases, if there is already an established Bactrocera population, parasitoid releases could be initiated before host fruit are completely ripened, increasing the amount of time available for large numbers of wasps to be reared, taken to the field and released. We also expect an increase in the size of the area parasitized by F.arisanus over the next few years, as observed in French Polynesia after release of parasitoids. Future research would evaluate augmentative releases to improve levels of field parasitism and significantly decrease damage to fruits during certain times of the year. Furthermore, reduced risk control methods such as protein baits could be integrated with parasitoids into effective IPM programs for management of fruit flies in Africa.
Technical Abstract: Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(aka B.invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White) was first reported in Africa in 2003 and has since spread to over 27 countries. It has become a serious tree fruit pest, particularly in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Because of uncertainty as to the exact status of B.invadens within the B.dorsalis complex in 2012, USDA-ARS-Daniel K, Inouye-Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center researchers in Hawaii reared the parasitoid Fopius arisanus on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann), which is endemic to Africa. From 2013 to 2014, 14 shipments of parasitoids inside C.capitata pupae, totaling approximately 246,000 F.arisanus, were sent from Hilo, HI, USA to Dakar, Senegal and released in 12M. indica and orange(Citrus spp) orchards in the Casamance region of southern Senegal. Parasitoids were emerged from pupae, processed and small scale rearing done on locally available B.dorsalis for subsequent releases. Limited numbers of F.arisanus had been released in 2012 from cultures maintained in Cotonou, Benin, by IiTA under the PADERCA project; however, parasitism was relatively low. During 2013 and 2014 parasitism rates have steadily increased and are now approximately 20-25% in M. indica fruits. Unique to this project was using F.arisanus reared on its native host, B.dorsalis, and rearing them on a less preferred host, C.capitata, in Hawaii, shipping these parasitoids to Africa and releasing them back against B.dorsalis whereby they became established in 12 M. indica orchards in Senegal.