Location: Nutrient Data LaboratoryTitle: Measurement of multiple vitamin K forms in processed and fresh-cut pork products in the U.S. food supply
|FU, XUEYAN - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|SHEN, XIAOHUA - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|FINNAN, EMILY - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|BOOTH, SARAH - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/18/2016
Publication Date: 5/18/2016
Citation: Fu, X., Shen, X., Finnan, E.G., Haytowitz, D.B., Booth, S.L. 2016. Measurement of multiple vitamin K forms in processed and fresh-cut pork products in the U.S. food supply. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64 (22): 4531-4535.
Interpretive Summary: same as abstract
Technical Abstract: Vitamin K food composition data have historically been limited to plant-based phylloquinone (vitamin K1). Recent reports from Europe attribute heart health benefits to menaquinones. The purpose of this study was to expand analysis of vitamin K to animal products, and measure phylloquinone and 10 forms of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in processed and fresh-cut pork products. Nationally representative samples of processed pork products (n=28) were obtained through USDA’s National Food and Nutrition Analysis Program, and fresh pork (6 cuts; n=5 per cut) and bacon (n=4) were purchased from local retail outlets. All samples were analyzed by HPLC (phylloquinone and menaquinone-4) and APCI-LC-MS (menaquinone-5 to menaquinone-13). Although low in phylloquinone (<2.1±0.5 µg phylloquinone/100 g), all processed pork products and fresh pork cuts contained menaquinone-4, menaquinone-10 and menaquinone-11 (range: 35.1±11.0-534±89.0 µg menaquinones/100 g). The total menaquinone contents of processed pork products were correlated with fat contents (r=0.935). In summary, processed and fresh-cut pork products are a rich dietary source of menaquinones that are currently unaccounted for in assessment of vitamin K in the food supply, though the physiological role of menaquinones has received little attention. This research will hopefully stimulate research on the association between dietary menaquinoes and health outcomes.