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ARS Home » Plains Area » Brookings, South Dakota » Integrated Cropping Systems Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #326033

Research Project: Productive Cropping Systems Based on Ecological Principles of Pest Management

Location: Integrated Cropping Systems Research

Title: Development of a CO2 releasing co-formulation 1 based on starch, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Beauveria bassiana attractive towards western corn rootworm larvae

Author
item Vemmer, Marina - UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
item Schumann, Mario - GEORG AUGUST UNIVERSITY
item Beitzen-heineke, Wilhelm - BIOCARE BIOLOGICAL PLANT PROTECTION
item French, Bryan
item Vidal, Stefan - GEORG AUGUST UNIVERSITY
item Patel, Anant - UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES

Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/29/2015
Publication Date: 2/2/2016
Citation: Vemmer, M., Schumann, M., Beitzen-Heineke, W., French, B.W., Vidal, S., Patel, A.V. 2016. Development of a CO2 releasing co-formulation 1 based on starch, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Beauveria bassiana attractive towards western corn rootworm larvae. Pest Management Science. doi: 10.1002/ps.4245.

Interpretive Summary: Western corn rootworm larvae feed on corn roots and cause severe damage to corn in North America and Europe. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is known as an attractant for many soil-dwelling pests. Using CO2 emitting formulations we wanted to develop and implement an attract-and-kill strategy for corn rootworm control. We found that the addition of starch improved CO2 release resulting in significantly higher CO2 concentrations in soil for at least four weeks. Formulations were attractive to western corn rootworm larvae within the first 4 h following exposure; and in addition, when considering the whole testing period the maize root systems remained more attractive for the larvae. Co-encapsulation of yeast, starch and fungi is a promising approach for the development of attractive formulations for soil applications. For biological control strategies, the attractiveness needs to be increased as a feeding stimulant to extend contact between larvae and the larvae killing fungus growing out of these formulations.

Technical Abstract: CO2 is known as an attractant for many soil-dwelling pests. To implement an attract-and-kill strategy for soil pest control, CO2 emitting formulations need to be developed. This work aimed at the development of a slow release bead system in order to bridge the gap between application and hatching of western corn rootworm larvae. We compared different Ca-alginate beads containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their potential to release CO2 during several weeks. Addition of starch improved CO2 release resulting in significantly higher CO2 concentrations in soil for at least four weeks. The missing amylase activity was compensated either by microorganisms present in soil or by co-encapsulation of Beauveria bassiana. Formulations containing S. cerevisiae, starch and B. bassiana were attractive for western corn rootworm larvae within the first 4 h following exposure; however, when considering the whole testing period the maize root systems remained more attractive for the larvae. Co-encapsulation of S. cerevisiae, starch and B. bassiana is a promising approach for the development of attractive formulations for soil applications. For biological control strategies, the attractiveness needs to be increased by phagostimuli to extend contact between larvae and the entomopathogenic fungus growing out of these formulations.