|WU, GEYANG - Washington State University|
|ROSS, CAROLYN - Washington State University|
|MURPHY, KEVIN - Washington State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/2/2017
Publication Date: 4/6/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5678131
Citation: Wu, G., Ross, C.F., Morris, C.F., Murphy, K.M. 2017. Lexicon development, consumer acceptance, and drivers of liking of quinoa varieties. Journal of Food Science. 82:993-1005.
Interpretive Summary: The objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing the sensory properties of quinoa.The sensory lexicon of cooked quinoa can be used by breeders to screen quinoa varieties. Specifically, variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and texture of firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist. The lexicon is also very useful in the food industry to evaluate quinoa ingredients from multiple farms/years, processing procedure (such as seed cleaning), and product development.
Technical Abstract: Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of varieties being commercially available. In order to compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needed to be developed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing the sensory properties of quinoa. A trained panel (n = 9) developed appropriate aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the quinoa and evaluated 16 quinoa varieties and 5 commercial samples. Additionally, texture was also determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated the lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in different aromas, taste/flavors, and textures. Specifically, variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and texture of firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist. For aroma, variety ‘California Tricolor’ was most described by earthy, woody, grassy, bean-like and nutty aroma. Variety ‘Temuko’ majorly exhibited sweet and grain-like aroma. For taste/flavor, ‘Black’ showed the bitter and earthy flavor, whereas ‘Peruvian White’ was most described by sweet and nutty flavor and lack of earthy. Additionally, three adhesive varieties, ‘QQ74’, ‘Linares’, and ‘CO407D’, exhibited very different texture compared to any commercialized quinoa. Furthermore, hardness and adhesiveness were highly correlated between instrument test and panel data (r = 0.70 and -0.63, respectively). However, cohesiveness exhibited negative correlation which may be caused by different definitions. Overall, the lexicon can be utilized by breeders to monitor sensory profiles of quinoa in multiple years/locations; and used by food manufacturer to evaluate processing and label quinoa package.