Submitted to: Nutrition Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/23/2016
Publication Date: 6/27/2016
Citation: Raatz, S.K., Johnson, L.K., Picklo, M.J. 2016. Twice weekly intake of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) positively influences lipoprotein concentration and particle size in overweight men and women. Nutrition Research. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2016.06.011.
Interpretive Summary: The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend eating fish twice a week. We studied farmed Atlantic salmon at three portion sizes to evaluate the effect on blood lipid levels and lipoprotein particle size and concentration. We found that twice weekly intake of farmed Atlantic salmon alters blood lipids and lipoproteins in a manner associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.
Technical Abstract: Background and Aims. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend twice weekly fish intake. Farmed Atlantic salmon is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids which have positive lipid modifying effects; however, it is unknown whether these responses are dose-dependent in the context of fish intake. Our primary aim was to determine the effect of dose dependent intake of farmed Atlantic salmon on lipoprotein particle size and concentration. Methods and Results. Healthy, adult participants (n=19) were enrolled in a cross-over designed clinical trial evaluating intake of farmed Atlantic salmon. In random order, participants were assigned to 90, 180, or 270 g of salmon twice weekly for 4-week dietary treatments. Following a 4-8 week washout, participants crossed over to another dose of fish intake until all treatments were completed. Plasma lipid concentrations were determined and serum lipoprotein concentrations and particle (P) size were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Intake of salmon reduced plasma and serum TG concentrations and increased plasma HDL-C concentrations. The concentrations of large VLDL-P and CM-P were reduced and the large LDL-P concentrations were increased in a dose dependent manner. The mean size of VLDL-P was reduced and that of LDL was increased. Total TG was reduced as was the TG content of VLDL-P and CM-P. Conclusions. Twice weekly intake of farmed Atlantic salmon portions influences plasma lipids and serum lipoprotein particle size and concentration in a manner associated with CVD risk reduction. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01183520.